Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)
Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 269 themselves, and from this time on a strong party, mostly from among the military leaders, claimed that unless Byzantium were eliminated there would be no security and no future for the Ottoman state. In Ghazavat-i Sultan Murãd, a recently discovered, well-informed account of the events between 1439 and 1444, the crusades of 1443 and 1444, as well as the Karamanid attacks in Anatolia, are all attributed originally to the activities of Byzantine diplomacy. Though basically reflecting the view of the anti-Byzantine party, the claim is largely confirmed by our western sources, which tell us about activities of Byzantine diplomats in Rome, Venice, and Buda in those years.'42 Hungary, exposed directly to Ottoman attacks after the Ottoman occupation of Serbia, was prepared, under the leadership of the regent John Hunyadi, to launch a decisive war against the Ottomans. In their efforts toward this end, the Hungarian aristocracy agreed in 1440 to have Ladislas (Vladislav III), king of Poland, as their king (László IV), provided that he vigorously pursue the struggle against the Ottomans. Hungary found that Byzantium was equally interested in the launching of a general crusade. As early as February 1442 the Byzantine envoy, John Torzello, was in Venice with the mission of visiting Buda, Rome, and other European capitals for the realization of such a crusade.'43 Once the union was realized pope Eugenius IV (1431—1447) showed great enthusiasm for the crusade. In February 1442 he appointed cardinal Julian Cesarini as papal legate to Hungary; on January 1, 1443, he invited the Christian rulers to a general crusade against the Ottomans, and in May 1443 he named his nephew Francis Condulmer commander of the fleet to cooperate with the crusader army from Hungary.'44 Although Venice was typically cautious enough not to engage in a direct conflict with the Ottomans, it was supporting the preparations, and agreed to build a crusading fleet of ten galleys when funds were made available.'45 Encouraged by the Ottoman reverses in the Balkans and by the Byzantine emperor,'46 the Karamanid Ibrahim Beg had made raids into the disputed territory of Akshehir (Philomelium) and Beyshehir in late 1442, and again in the spring of 1443. Murad II forced him to sign 142. See lorga, Notes et extraits, II (Paris, 1899), index, p. 580, s.v. Jean VIII Paléologue; Halecki, The Crusade of Varna, pp. 32-82. Halecki tries to prove that there was no confirmation by king Ladislas of Hungary at Szegedin of the treaty of Adrianople of June 12, 1444. D?browski, "L'Année 1444," was critical of Halecki's thesis, and Ghazavdt-i Sultan Murdd now supplies Ottoman evidence that Halecki is incorrect; see below, note 149. 143. lorga, Notes et extraits, II, 83; Thiriet, Régestes, III, no. 2568. 144. Setton, The Papacy, II, 68-69. 145. Thiriet, Régestes, III, nos. 2608, 2628; Setton, The Papacy, II, 75, note 131. 146. Ghazavdt, p. 4.
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