Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)
Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 263 in 1326. As vividly reflected in Venetian correspondence, Venice had to feed the city by sea, mainly from Crete, and eventually the starving populace turned against their new masters. The Ottomans had sympathizers and supporters among the Greeks, especially the Greek clergy. Venetian tactics were to cut off the Ottomans' passage between Anatolia and Rumelia at the Dardanelles, to support the Karamanids, and to chase the Ottoman fleet away from Thessalonica.123 In June 1429 the senate offered Sigismund a new project of alliance with emphasis on the occupation of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli.124 During the summer and autumn Murad had to watch with anxiety ShAhrukh's movements on his borders in Anatolia, and be content with the raids of his frontier forces in the Morea and Albania, while the Venetian fleet under Andrew Mocenigo threatened Gallipoli. Shãhrukh's victory against the Karakoyunlu in the battle of Salmas on September 17-18, 1429, emboldened the Venetians, who reminded Murad of the danger from the east. 125 Sh~hrukh returned to Azerbaijan for the winter, and Murad called the Anatolian forces under the able general Hamza, conqueror of Smyrna, to Europe in February 1430. Thessalonica was taken on March 29, 1430. In his letter to his friend the Mamluk sultan Barsbay, Murad II presented it as a victory for Islam, and considered it as the elimination of a great danger to the Ottoman state. 126 The fall of Thessalonica came as a surprise to the Venetians; Si!vestro Morosini was then cruising off the coast of Epirus. In the summer of 1430, while Sh~thrukh was still in Azerbaijan, the Venetian fleet attacked Gallipoli and cut off all communications on the Straits. Acting on behalf of the sultan, Hamza signed a peace treaty in July 1430 (ratification September 4, 1430). Venice recognized the Ottoman possession of Thessalonica, and guaranteed security for Ottoman communications on the Straits. By agreeing to pay a yearly tribute of 236 ducats Venice also recognized Ottoman overlordship at Patras, where Latin rule was challenged by the Greeks and Turks. For his part, the sultan recognized Venetian sovereignty over its Albanian possessions — Durazzo, Scutari, and Antivari (Bar). Seven years of occupation of Thessalonica and the resulting Ottoman war had cost the republic over 700,000 ducats. 123. lorga, Notes et extraits, I, 490, instructions to the captain-general Andrew Mocenigo, dated May 15, 1429; for the Karamanids see ibid., I, 503. 124. Ibid., I, 494. 125. Ibid., I, 505, note 5. 126. FerIdOn, op. cit., I, 198.
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