Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)
Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 261 In April 1428 a strong army of twenty-five to thirty thousand Hungarians and six thousand Wallachians under voivode Dan II, as well as Lithuanian contingents, arrived before Golubats. The Turkish fleet on the Danube was eliminated. Murad rushed with fresh forces to the aid of the hard-pressed Golubats, and Sigismund decided not to risk a pitched battle as he had done at Nicopolis in 1396. A cease-fire for the retreat of the Hungarian army to the west side of the Danube was agreed upon early in June 1428. Continued negotiations eventually resulted in a three-year truce between the two powers. While Sigismund took pains to explain to Venice and pope Martin V his reasons for making peace with Murad, the Ottoman sultan in his turn tried to prove to sultan Barsbay of Egypt (1422-1438) that the peace was necessary and that Serbia and Bosnia were once again forced to recognize Islamic overlordship. 116 The Ottomans now controlled Serbia through their strongholds of Golubats and Krushevats, as well as Ishak Beg's forces in Skoplje. Brankovich built for himself a new capital at Smederevo (Semendria) between Golubats and Belgrade,117 and accepted full vassalage to the sultan — payment of a yearly tribute of 50,000 gold ducats and provision of an auxiliary force of two thousand for the sultan's expeditions. Sigismund, taking advantage of the Ottoman crisis and the intensification of the Ottoman pressure on the buffer states, resumed in the period 1421-1428 efforts to realize the plan of a Danubian empire originated by Louis the Great. The struggle resulted in a compromise, or rather a postponement of the question, because of the powerful Ottoman reaction. The Ottomans, when they found themselves in a better position, would resume their aggressive policy in the region against Hungary, and this would give rise to a series of crusading activities in the west, on Hungarian initiative. Disappointed by the armistice between the Hungarians and the Turks, Venice's hopes revived when new developments threatened the Ottomans on their eastern borders. During the Ottoman siege of Golubats the Karamanids, apparently in collaboration with Hungary,'18 had moved against the Ottomans, forcing Murad to surrender the muchdisputed Hamid area. Through the mediation of the king of Cyprus, Janus (1398—1432), Venice entered into negotiations for an alliance 116. The sultan's letter is in FerIdUn, op. cit., I, 303—305. 117. The anonymous TevârIkh gives the date as 831 (October 22, 1427—November 11, 1428). 118. István Katona, Historia critica.. . regum Hungariae: Stirpis mixtae (12 vols., Pest et alibi, 1778—1810), V, 505, cited by lorga, Notes et extraits, I, 505.
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