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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)


Page 260

260 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADESp.92. 
the sultan, and to guarantee cooperation against the Hungarians."0 The Ottomans,
in return, had promised George military aid against his rival, king Tvrtko
II of Bosnia, who had laid siege to Srebrenitsa. 
 In the summer of 1427, frontier forces under Ishak Beg of Skoplje staged
a raid into Bosnia, and went as far as Croatia. Under the pressure of the
Ottoman frontier forces Tvrtko II had accepted Hungarian protection since
1422,hhl and now demanded aid. After the death of Stephen in July, the Ottomans
and Hungarians moved to invade Serbia to prevent each other from taking over
the land. While Sigismund occupied Belgrade in the autumn of 1427, the Ottoman
forces invaded upper Serbia, capturing Krushevats and Golubats, as well as
the island of "Jan-adasi" (identified as New Orshova) in the Danube. As noted
above, Murad had already forced Brankovich, the new Serbian despot (1427-1456),
to recognize Ottoman suzerainty, and to pay tribute. But now the despot chose
as his heir Frederick of Cilly, Sigismund's son-in-law. 112 
 When military action around Thessalonica was intensified, the Venetian senate
had accepted the necessity of an alliance with Hungary (October 1425). Now
not only Byzantium but also Florence113 and Savoy, as well as Poland, urged
Hungary to reach an agreement with Venice. 
 Sigismund organized his conquests into two banats (military frontier provinces),
Machva and Belgrade, against the Ottomans. Opposite Golubats (GalambOcz),
now in Ottoman hands, he built the fortress Lászlóvár."4
Thus a strong defense line was created against the Ottomans from Giurgiu
on the lower Danube to Severin, while Wallachian, Serbian, and Bosnian princes
recognized the protection and suzerainty of the Hungarian king. Sigismund
once again emerged as the champion of a crusade against the Ottomans. Planning
his crowning as emperor in Rome, he declared his determination to reach a
full agreement with the pope to achieve peace and unity in Italy so that
he could eradicate the Hussite heresy, and, as an ultimate goal, could fight
against the Ottomans and deliver the Holy Land.'15 
 110. The main source is Neshri, op. cit., pp. 161—162. 
 111. In 1410 Sigismund entered Bosnia and was crowned "king of Bosnia and
Serbia"; see Jire~ek, Geschichte der Serben, II, 147. 
 112. Fessler, op. cit., II, 374. Frederick succeeded his father Hermann
II in 1435 and died in 1454. 
 113. Beckmann, Der Kampj pp. 92—93; see lorga, Notes et extraits,
I, 351—357, 409—410; Setton, The Papacy, II, 25; Barker, Manuel
II, pp. 375-379. 
 114. Fessler, op. cit., II, 374. 
 115. For his words to the Florentine embassy in September 1427, see Beckmann,
Der Kampj 


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