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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)


Page 237

Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 237 
outstanding debts of the emperor. 27 It appears that John V even hoped to
recover the territory occupied by the Ottomans in Thrace, since the aggressive
Suleiman was now dead. Thus in his answer to the pope's letter dated July
21, 1357, the emperor was able to communicate to Innocent VI some signs of
success over his enemies and high hopes for the future.28 For the ghazis
the agreement, signed under duress, was a great sacrifice. It meant the cessation
of warfare and the abandonment of the Turks who had recently settled in Thrace.
 After his rescue of Khalil from the corsairs in the early summer of 1358,29
John V conceived a plan that would maintain peace with the Ottomans. Following
the example of Cantacuzenus, he secured Orkhan's agreement to the engagement
of his daughter Irene, then almost ten years old, to the Ottoman prince in
Constantinople. He then returned Khalil to his father at Nicomedia. Furthermore,
he had the promise of the old Orkhan that Khalil was to succeed him on the
throne at his death. After Suleiman's death prince Murad, with his tutor
Lala Shahin, took his place in Gallipoli as frontier lord. Khalil, in his
appanage in Nicaea, died soon afterward, in 1359. 
 The Ottoman tradition3° is important for the historian of the crusades
since it seems to corroborate a disputed account given by Philip of Mézières,
the biographer of Peter Thomas, on the crusaders' campaign against the Ottomans
in 1359. Back in Constantinople in the autumn of 1359 as the pope's apostolic
legate in the east, Peter Thomas had brought with him a small crusading force
composed of Hospitallers, Venetians, Genoese, and English soldiers on Venetian
galleys. He found John V engaged in hostilities with the Ottomans, Khalil
having by that time returned home, and perhaps died. According to Philip
the crusaders, joined by Greek forces, captured and burned Lampsacus, an
Ottoman transit port on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles. During their
return to their ships they were attacked by Turks waiting in ambush. Fleeing
in disorder with the legate at their head, the Christians barely escaped
a massacre. 
 Turkish tradition mentions an engagement on the plain adjoining 
 27. Ostrogorsky, "Byzance, état tributaire de l'empire turc," Zbornik
radova Vizantoloskog Instituta, V (1958), 49—58. 
 28. Setton, The Papacy, I, 228. 
 29. See Parisot, Cantacuzène, pp. 298—309; lorga, "Latins,"
p. 219, but the date given there, 
1356, is erroneous. 
 30. Anonymous, Tevarrkh-i Al-i ' Othman, ed. Giese as Die altosmanischen
anonymen Chroniken..., I (Breslau, 1922), 18; a ghazi tradition in Oruj,
Tevärikh-i Al-i ' Othmãn, ed. Franz Babinger (Hanover, 1925),
p. 19, makes Umur Pasha encourage Suleiman not to abandon his conquests in
Europe. 


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