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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

V: The Institutions of the Kingdom of Cyprus,   pp. 150-174 PDF (9.7 MB)

Page 171

It is not known to what extent any Latin monasteries replaced Greek monasteries;
this was undoubtedly exceptional. It may perhaps have occurred in the case
of the Benedictine monastery of the Cross in Cyprus (Stavrovouni), to which
the monastery of St. Paul of Antioch was united after 1268, or in the case
of the priory of Augustinian canons of Bellapais, which later adopted the
Premonstratensian rule. But Latin monasticism was generally a matter of new
foundations (the Cistercians of Beaulieu, and the Cistercian sisters of St.
Theodore). The religious who were expelled by the Mamluk invasion transferred
their communities to Cyprus: thus the Benedictine sisters of Our Lady of
Tyre and of Our Lady of Tortosa were in Nicosia. Franciscans, Dominicans,
and Carmelites then established the centers of their respective provinces
of the Holy Land in Cyprus. The Temple and the Hospital, which were well
endowed there, likewise established their seats in Cyprus, on a temporary
basis, after the fall of Acre. The Teutonic Knights and the order of St.
Thomas the Martyr (or the order of the English) also had headquarters there.62
 The growth of Latin monasteries was paralleled by that of Greek monasteries.
The concordat of 1222 had sought to limit the number of Greek monks, and
it is possible that a part of their domains had been appropriated for the
formation of fiefs. But the survival of large foundations which possessed
some important domains, such as Kykkou, Mangana, Agros, Machaeras, and Enkleistra,
and the two abbeys in Nicosia called "of the Men" (Andrio) and "of the Women"
(Ienachio), is noteworthy. The Armenian prince Hetoum, who had become a Premonstratensian,
asked Clement V to unite Mangana to Bellapais. The inquiry prescribed by
the pope had no effect, and Mangana kept its independence. Now and again
the seigneuries subject to these monasteries may have had to pay tithes;
the pope exempted them from doing so. Peter I was one of the benefactors
of Kykkou, and Frankish nobles often gave evidence of their devotion to the
monasteries. The Greek monasteries of Palestine, which like their Latin counterparts
had lands on Cyprus, held on to them, as, for example, did that of St. Theodosius
of the desert of Judaea and especially that of Sinai, which founded 
 62. Richard, Documents chypriotes, pp. 67—69, 111—120. The goods
of the Temple, seized upon the arrest of the knights, whom Henry II punished
severely for the help they had given Amairic of Tyre (Hugh III had already
dealt with them heavily by taking the castle of La Castrie), were given to
the Hospital, except for PsimolOfo, which was given to the titular patriarch
of Jerusalem, Anthony. The Hospital divided its share between the chief commandery
(Kolossi) and the commanderies of Phinika and Tembros; in 1468, James II
appears to have appropriated the revenues of these domains. Many knights
of Rhodes entered his service. 

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