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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe

A note on transliteration and nomenclature,   pp. xix-xxii PDF (338.2 KB)

Page xxii

of the definite article from personal names was considered but eventually
 Armenian presented great difficulties: the absence of an authoritative reference
source for spelling names, the lack of agreement on transliteration, and
the sound-shift by which classical and eastern Armenian b, d, g became western
Armenian p, t, k and — incredible as it may seem to the unwary —
vice versa; similar reciprocal interchanges involved ts and dz, and ch and
j. The following alphabet represents western Armenian letters, with eastern
variants in parentheses: a, p (b), k (g), t (d), e, z, ~, 1, t, zh, i, 1,
kh, dz (ts), g (k), h, ts (dz), gh, j (ch), m,y,n,sh,o,ch,b(p),ch(j),r,s,v,d(t),r,ts,uorv,~,k,o,f.
Many spellings are based on the Armenian texts in the Recueil des historiens
des croisades. 
 In standardizing names of groups, the correct root forms in the respective
languages have been identified, with the ending "-id" for dynasties and their
peoples but "-ite" for sects, and with plural either identical with singular
(as Kirghiz) or plus "-s" (Khazars) or "-es" (Uzes). In cases where this
sounded hopelessly awkward, it was abandoned (Muwahhids, not Muwahhidids
or Muwahbidites, and certainly not Almohads, which is, however, cross-referenced).
 The use of place names is explained in the note preceding the gazetteer,
but may be summarized by saying that in general the most familjar correct
form is used in the text and maps, normally an English version of the name
by which the place was known to Europeans during the crusades. Variant forms
are given and identified in the gazetteer. 
[Princeton, New Jersey, 1962] 
Reprinted from Volume I, with minor modifications. 

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