Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118, pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)
Ch. XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE LATIN STATES 407 Arnuif felt that the little kingdom could not be safely left to an absentee king, for Roger's most important interests would be in Sicily. Therefore with Arnuif's connivance the marriage with Adelaide was annulled. Although Baldwin, when he died two years later, left the kingdom to a resident sovereign, he had forfeited permanently the friendship of the wealthy Sicilian court.44 The affair of Adelaide is also significant because it shows the close support given the throne, even the strong influence upon royal policy, by the patriarchate under Arnulf. But it was an influence exerted for a strong monarchy, not an independent church. In the spring of ii i8 Baldwin led a small reconnoitering expedition into Egypt for the first time. He plundered Pelusium (al-Faramã'), southeast of modern Port Said, late in March. He then pushed on to Tinnis on one of the mouths of the Nile. Here he became fatally ill. He attempted to return to Jerusalem but died at al_cArIsh, sixty miles southwest of Ascalon, April 2, i i 18. He was succeeded by Baldwin of Le Bourg, whose formal consecration as king of Jerusalem took place on April 14 of that year. As a result another Latin state, the county of Edessa, also changed hands, for Baldwin of Le Bourg gave it to Joscelin of Courtenay in 1119. In the year i i i8 there died several others identified with the early history of the Latin states, namely pope Paschal II, Adelaide of Sicily, patriarch Arnulf, and emperor Alexius Comnenus. The reign of Alexius Comnenus, whose death occurred in August, four months after that of Baldwin I, had been advantageous to his empire and not inimical to the Franks.45 He had reorganized and strengthened the, administration and had restored the security and prosperity of his people, while protecting his frontiers against the usual attacks in the Balkans, the pseudo-crusade of the avaricious and vindictive Norman, Bohemond, and the menacing raids of the Turks in Anatolia. He had preserved his realm against the threat implicit in the presence of large western armies, too often composed of ambitious and unprincipled leaders with bigoted and undisciplined followers, only too willing to blame all their hardships and misfortunes on the Greeks, whom they regarded as wily profiteers, as schismatics, and eventually as treacherous renegades. However accurate these accusations might be against certain of ~ William of Tyre, XI, 21, z6, z~ letter of Paschal II in de Rozière, Cartulaire, no is; Kuhn, C eschichte der ersten lateinischen Patriarchen, pp. 55—57. ~ The whole period of the Comneni and the Angeli of Byzantium (108 I—12o4) will be examined in a chapter of volume II, where another chapter will consider the complex history of the Sd chükids of Rum and their Moslem neighbors, chief among whom in the twelfth century were the Dãnishmendids.
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