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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)

Page 395

Ch. XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE LATIN STATES 395 32 Histoire des croisades,
I, 332—333. For details of the Crusade of 1101 see above, chapterXI.
the cause. But the establishment of his rival Godfrey as ruler of Jerusalem
and the homesickness of his Provençal troops had. forced Raymond to
leave Jerusalem in August 1099. He marched his men to Latakia where most
of them embarked for Europe, as we have seen. Raymond, now a leader without
an army, went on to Constantinople the next year to seek whatever aid he
could get from the emperor Alexius. The bond between them was dislike of
Bohemond of Antioch, who had thwarted them both. 
 About the beginning of 1102 Raymond returned by sea to Syria. In the year
1101 he had assumed the leadership, with the approval of the emperor Alexius,
of a host of crusaders, principally Lom bards, who had reached Constantinople
fired by enthusiasm gene rated by the success of the First Crusade. It was
now Raymond's hope that he might appear in Syria and Palestine with this
new army at his back and dictate a settlement more in accord with his conception
of the original purposes of the crusade. It was Alexius's hope that Raymond
would reopen Anatolia to By zantine occupation, and would reduce AntiOch
to a dependency of Byzantium. 
 As we saw in the preceding chapter, however, the crusaders of 1101 were
virtually exterminated by Kilij Arslan of Iconium and Malik-GhazI of Sebastia
(Sivas). If Raymond of St. Gilles had arrived in Syria in 1101 with a large
and victorious army, it is presumable that the Byzantines would have recovered
the Ana tolian provinces in his wake, that he might have been able to restore
Antioch to them, and that the Greeks would thereafter have played a much
more important and friendly role in the history of the Latin states. It is
also presumable that Raymond, who had been consulted by pope Urban in 1095
in planning the First Crusade, and who thought that he more truly represented
its original purposes than did the other princes, would have had a large
influence upon the disposition of affairs in general in Syria and Palestine.
Grousset goes further and suggests that Raymond and his large army might
have conquered Aleppo and Damascus and made possible the establishment of
a Latin power much stron ger and more stable than Edessa and the three coastal
states that did result from the efforts of the Franks.32 However in the Crusade
of 1 101 not only were the hopes of Alexius and Raymond defeated, but when
Raymond returned to Syria in 1102 he was virtually without a following. The
old count endured the humiliation of 

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