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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / Volume I: The first hundred years

A note on transliteration and nomenclature,   pp. xxv-xxix ff. PDF (1.2 MB)

Page xxvii

"Muhammad", to correspond with names of other Arabs who are not individually
so familiar to westerners as to be better recog nized in Anglicized forms.
 All names of other Arabs, and of non-Arabs with Arabic names, have been
systematically transliterated, with the single exception of Salãh-ad-Din,
whom it would have been pedantic to call that rather than Saladin. For places
held, in the crusading era or now, by Arabs the Arabic names appear either
in the text or in the gazetteer, where some additional ones are also included
to broaden the usefulness of this feature. 
 Large numbers of names of persons and groups, however, cus tomarily found
in Arabicized spellings because they were written in Arabic script, have
been restored to their underlying identity whenever this is ascertainable.
For example, Arabic "Saljuq" misrepresents four of the six component phonemes:
s is correct, a replaces Turkish e, for which Arabic script provides no equi
valent, l is correct, j replaces the non-Arabic ch, ü substitutes a
non-Turkish long u for the original u, and q as distinguished from k is non-existent
in Turkish; this quadruple rectification yields "Selchük" as the name
of the eponymous leader, and "Selchukid" 
— on the model of ' Abbãsid and Timurid — for the dynasty
and the people. Arabic forms of Turkish names, as well as hybrids like "Ortoq"
and "Zangi", are cross-referenced in the index. 
 It might be thought that as Turkish is now written in a well conceived modified
Latin alphabet, there would be no reason to alter this, and this presumption
is substantially valid. For the same reasons as apply to Arabic, ch has been
preferred above ç, sh above s, and gh above g, with kh in a few instances
given as a preferred alternate of h, from which it is not distinguished in
modern Turkish. No long vowels have been indicated, as being functionless
survivals. Two other changes have been made in the interest of the English-speaking
reader, and should be remembered by those using map sheets and standard reference
works: c (pro nounced dj) has been changed to j, so that one is not visually
led to imagine that the Turkish name for the Tigris — Dijle/Dicle —
rhymes with "tickle", and what the eminent lexicographer H. C. Hony terms
"that abomination the undotted i" has, after the model of The Encyclopaedia
of Islam, been written i. 
 Spellings, modified as above indicated, have usually been founded on those
of the Turkish edition, Islam Ansiklopedisi, hampered by occasional inconsistencies
within that work and especially by the fact that it has appeared in fascicule
form only 

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