Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291, pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)
Ch. VII PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 253 from sources he had studied at the famous and venerable Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino. A third artist, far less accomplished than either of the other two, executed a series of nine portraits to illustrate the prayers after the Psalter. He follows Byzantine models closely as with the Virgin and Child enthroned (p1. XXXIXd), an image based on the Virgin Nikopoia type. But his style is more linear and decorative than that of Basilius and his figures more wooden and doll-like. Lacking the knowledgeable ease of working from Byzantine sources demonstrated by the well-trained Basilius, this painter copies carefully but never succeeds in overcoming his strong roots in western Romanesque painting. Melisend's codex epitomizes the melange of cultures which made up crusader Jerusalem and manifested themselves in the paintings found in products of the scriptorium of the Holy Sepulcher. The strength of the Byzantine influence is particularly notable, showing that aristocratic patronage at court sought to rival that at Constanti nople even while the variety of western artistic backgrounds evident in the paintings points to the peculiarly crusader nature of the work. Ecclesiastical commissions of the same period show similar charac teristics. In a sacramentary, partially preserved now in Cambridge at the Fitzwilliam Museum, and a missal now in the Bibliothèque na tionale, Paris, the illustrations for the preface to the canon of the liturgy show closely related compositions (pls. XLa and b respective ly).2 Their similarities derive from use of a common model, because in style their artists are clearly different, the Cambridge manuscript painter being related to the Paris codex painter in a manner some what parallel to Basilius and the painter of the saints' portraits in the Psalter. That is, the Cambridge artist is the more assured in working with Byzantine prototypes as seen in the elongated, strongly modeled figures with flowing draperies, whereas the Paris artist em phasizes stocky proportions and flat linear pattern including more copious interlace and animated scrollwork for the initial itself. This does not mean that the Cambridge painter, probably a south Italian, is equal in ability to Basilius. He is not, but his familiarity with By zantine models is nearly comparable. The Paris painter on the other hand goes at his task with the same selfconscious diligence as the painter of the saints' portraits. In a historiated initial with the women at the sepulcher the Paris artist meticulously follows Byzan 2. The sacramentary fragment, Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, MS. McClean 49; the missal, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS. latin 12056; see above, pp. 129-130.
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