United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1892
Reports of supervisors of education, pp. 619-646 PDF (13.1 MB)
REPORTS OF SUPERVISORS OF EDUCATION. 623 of the race point to another line of employment more forcibly than to mechanics, to wit, to agriculture and stock-raising, to a pastoral life. But lest I be misunderstood. I would say here. that I regard a judicious amount of manual labor as necessary to the welfare of the pupils in every Indian school. The work of the schoolroom isexcellent: but this matter of labor needs readjust- ment; it needs overhauling- it needs to be so arranged that each boy and girl shall have every day a certain number of hours of manual labor. and it should be so performed. no matt -r what it be, whether emptying slops, washing dishes, sweeping halls. or setting a table neatly, or making beds and airing and sweet- ening a domitory. or arranging aiticles of furniture, curtains, ornaments, pic- tures, flowers. etc., in a living room. as to confer a benefit on him or her who performs the labor. I n ed not say how this benefit is to come; thorough work is always a benefit; slipshcd work is a harm. I do not for a moment doubt that " industrial training produces a bodily condition helpful to study and does more to tone up the morals of the school than any other influence except religious exer- cises." But all this-seems so self-evident as to make it unnecessary to state it. Third. The schools should all be bonded. Fourth. The present miserable attendance should be (as it surely can be) remedied by a compulsory law. All of which is respectfully submitted. T. S. ANSLEY. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. REPORT OF SUPERVISOR OF EDUCATION FOR SECOND DISTRICT. BROOKINGS, S. DAK., August 24, 1892. SIR: I have the honor to submit my annual report of school work from Feb- ruary to June 30, 1892. The second supervisor district consists of six agencies of the Dakotas, Mon- tana, Wyoming, and Nebraska; in all, fifteen agencies. Of the eleven different tribes represented the Sioux are by far the most numer- ous. The Santee, Yankton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Standing Rock, and the greater portion of the Fort Peck are Sioux. In Ne- braska are the Winnebagos and Omahas, in Montana are the Assinaboines, Gros Ventres. Blackfeet, Flatheads, Crows, and Northern Cheyennes, and in Wyom- ing the Arapahoes and Shoshones. Within the district are 85 schools, 2 of which are nonreservation schools, Genoa, Nebr., and Pierre, S. Dak.; 1 nonreservation contract school, St. Peter, Mont. ; 15 Government boarding schools, 20 contract boarding schools, and 47 Gov- ernment boarding schools; in all, 85. These different tribes are widely scattered and differ among themselves in language, morals, habits, customs, and religion, as well as environment. All these different conditions materially affect their advancement in the march to- wards civilization. Three reservations I could not visit, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Cheyenne River. Successful school work has been begun upon every reservation. Some of the schools have not been as successful as we hoped to have them; most of them have been very successful, while a few have attained grand successes. The schools are'the great civilizers; where we find the best schools there we find the great- est advancement in civilization. Let a person go from Tongue River to Crow Reservation, and a marked difference can be seen, and yet the Crow Indians are considered low in the scale; but the schools on Crow Reservation are getting in their successful work, and the Crows are rising. Go from the Crow Reservation to the Flathead, or from Blackfeet to Standing Rock, or Santee, and the wonder- full changes educational and religious work is accomplishing will be seen. The doubter will be convinced. But there is plenty of darkness and ignorance yet to combat even among the most successful. Great obstacles must yet be over- come before success can be wholly ours. One of the greatest obstacles to overcome among some of the tribes is polyg- amy. Wherever that exists the Indian places a iow estimate upon his wife and daughters. He will resist the efforts to place them in school and educate them. The practice of marrying young girls of 12, 13, or 14 years of age. often to men who already have wives, is still terribly prevalent among some tribes, and wher- ever that practice is prevalent we usually find the poorest schools. The strong hand of the law should be stretched to stay this evil.
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