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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1892
61st ([1892])

Reports of supervisors of education,   pp. 619-646 PDF (13.1 MB)


Page 623

REPORTS OF SUPERVISORS OF EDUCATION.                  623 
of the race point to another line of employment more forcibly than to mechanics,
to wit, to agriculture and stock-raising, to a pastoral life. 
But lest I be misunderstood. I would say here. that I regard a judicious
amount 
of manual labor as necessary to the welfare of the pupils in every Indian
school. 
The work of the schoolroom isexcellent: but this matter of labor needs readjust-
ment; it needs overhauling- it needs to be so arranged that each boy and
girl 
shall have every day a certain number of hours of manual labor. and it should
be 
so performed. no matt -r what it be, whether emptying slops, washing dishes,
sweeping halls. or setting a table neatly, or making beds and airing and
sweet- 
ening a domitory. or arranging aiticles of furniture, curtains, ornaments,
pic- 
tures, flowers. etc., in a living room. as to confer a benefit on him or
her who 
performs the labor. I n ed not say how this benefit is to come; thorough
work 
is always a benefit; slipshcd work is a harm. I do not for a moment doubt
that 
" industrial training produces a bodily condition helpful to study and
does more to 
tone up the morals of the school than any other influence except religious
exer- 
cises." But all this-seems so self-evident as to make it unnecessary
to state it. 
Third. The schools should all be bonded. 
Fourth. The present miserable attendance should be (as it surely can be)
remedied by a compulsory law. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 
T. S. ANSLEY. 
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
REPORT OF SUPERVISOR OF EDUCATION FOR SECOND DISTRICT. 
BROOKINGS, S. DAK., August 24, 1892. 
SIR: I have the honor to submit my annual report of school work from Feb-
ruary to June 30, 1892. 
The second supervisor district consists of six agencies of the Dakotas, Mon-
tana, Wyoming, and Nebraska; in all, fifteen agencies. 
Of the eleven different tribes represented the Sioux are by far the most
numer- 
ous. The Santee, Yankton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, 
Standing Rock, and the greater portion of the Fort Peck are Sioux. In Ne-
braska are the Winnebagos and Omahas, in Montana are the Assinaboines, Gros
Ventres. Blackfeet, Flatheads, Crows, and Northern Cheyennes, and in Wyom-
ing the Arapahoes and Shoshones. 
Within the district are 85 schools, 2 of which are nonreservation schools,
Genoa, Nebr., and Pierre, S. Dak.; 1 nonreservation contract school, St.
Peter, 
Mont. ; 15 Government boarding schools, 20 contract boarding schools, and
47 Gov- 
ernment boarding schools; in all, 85. 
These different tribes are widely scattered and differ among themselves in
language, morals, habits, customs, and religion, as well as environment.
All 
these different conditions materially affect their advancement in the march
to- 
wards civilization. Three reservations I could not visit, Pine Ridge, Rosebud,
and Cheyenne River. 
Successful school work has been begun upon every reservation. Some of the
schools have not been as successful as we hoped to have them; most of them
have been very successful, while a few have attained grand successes. The
schools 
are'the great civilizers; where we find the best schools there we find the
great- 
est advancement in civilization. Let a person go from Tongue River to Crow
Reservation, and a marked difference can be seen, and yet the Crow Indians
are 
considered low in the scale; but the schools on Crow Reservation are getting
in 
their successful work, and the Crows are rising. Go from the Crow Reservation
to the Flathead, or from Blackfeet to Standing Rock, or Santee, and the wonder-
full changes educational and religious work is accomplishing will be seen.
The 
doubter will be convinced. But there is plenty of darkness and ignorance
yet 
to combat even among the most successful. Great obstacles must yet be over-
come before success can be wholly ours. 
One of the greatest obstacles to overcome among some of the tribes is polyg-
amy. Wherever that exists the Indian places a iow estimate upon his wife
and 
daughters. He will resist the efforts to place them in school and educate
them. 
The practice of marrying young girls of 12, 13, or 14 years of age. often
to men 
who already have wives, is still terribly prevalent among some tribes, and
wher- 
ever that practice is prevalent we usually find the poorest schools. The
strong 
hand of the law should be stretched to stay this evil. 


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