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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1884
([1884])

Reports of agents in California,   pp. 9-18 PDF (4.6 MB)


Page 15

15 
REPORTS OF AGENTS IN CALIFORNIA. 
who were in a condition of civilization when the treaty of 1848 was made
were citi- 
zens of Mexico, and are, by the terms of that treaty, now citizens of the
United States. 
The progress made in the last few years indicates that the Mission Indiansgenerally
will before long become a part of the people of this State having and exercising
the 
rights of citizenship. 
The annual statistics are forwarded herewith. 
With acknowledgments for numerous courtesies received from the Department,
I 
remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
"  "                            J. G. McCALLUM, 
UTited Slates Indian Agent. 
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
ROUND VALLEY AGENCY, 
Covelo, Cal., September 10, 1884. 
Sin: I have the honor herewith to submit my seventh annual report for this
agency. 
Our lands, as I reported last year, " are still occupied by settlers
and trespassers to 
such an extent as greatly to cripple our industrie, and discourage the Indians
in their 
advance towards civilization." 
During the past year the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal concerning the
swamp 
and other lands, thus confirming the title of the settlers to 1,080 acres
of the best 
valley laud, and lying in such separated lots as to cut up our fields badly
and deprive 
the Indians of a large part of their agricultural lands. 
POPULATION. 
There were 599 Indians who received issues during the past quarter, and 635
during 
the fourth quarter of 1883. There have been 23 deaths and 29 births. For
the first 
time in the history of this agency, the births exceed the deaths, showing
a gradual im- 
provement. 
AGRICULTURE. 
As stated in former reports, it is impossible to give the Indians sufficient
lands to 
raise all crops, on account of the occupancy of said lands by others under
the shadow 
of law; yet all are furnished with sufficient land for gardens, and are required
to 
raise their own vegetables, &c. 
Many of them raise more than they need for their own use, and sell the surplus
to 
others. Some have fields of grain, wheat, barley, and oats, but most of the
cereals 
are raised by a "1community of interest," i. e., all able-bodied
Indians are required to 
assist in the raising of these general crops for the benefit of the whole.
The Indians 
are not paid wages for the work, but receive their rations of beef and flour,
with 
such clothing as they need. 
PRODUCTIONS. 
The estimated productions for the year are as follows: For the general supply,
6,000 bushels of wheat, 4,500 bushels of oats, 3,000 bushels of barley, 1,250
bushels of 
corn, and 400 tons of hay; by the Indians for themselves, 1,000 bushels of
wheat, 
1,000 bushels of oats, 500 bushels of barley, and 80 tons of hay. 
Six lots of hops were raised by the Indians, amounting to 6,139 pounds, which
sold 
for $1,037.69, besides expenses of sale. This year the product of the agency
field will 
probably be 28,000 pounds, and the Indians 20,000 pounds. They will also
have about 
500 bushels of corn, 1,200 bushels of potatoes, 5,000 pumpkins, 10,000 melons,
100 bush- 
els of onions. 200 bushels of beans, and 50 bushels of turnips. The orchards
are loaded 
down with apples. 
STOCK. 
There are 66 horses and mares, one-third of which are unserviceable on account
of 
age and hard service. Of cattle we have 418, mostly cows and young stock.
We 
have 10 yoke of cattle, used at the saw-mill and on the ranch. There are
334 hogs, 
old and young. The increase in stock has been 3 horse and 1 mule colts, 131
calves, 
146 pigs. 
MILLS. 
The grist-mill has ground 214,010 pounds of grain for the agency, 11,724
pounds 
for the Indians, and 208,315 pounds for citizens, which has yielded a revenue
to the 


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