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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1883
([1883])

Reports of agents in Oregon,   pp. 126-136 PDF (5.1 MB)


Page 130

130               REPORTS OF AGENTS IN         OREGON. 
them to make homes. The young men desire to take land. The old lines and
corners 
are so nearly obliterated that it is hard to get the matter of allotments
as it should 
be to prevent trouble among them. The old maps on file in the office are
of a poor 
quality, and so incomplete that they cannot be relied upon. Some work in
the line 
of surveying and making maps is greatly needed in order to establish permanently
the lines, so that each one may know where to do permanent work With the
proper 
encouragement these Indians will soon all, or nearly all, be established
in homes of 
their own and be cultivating the soil. 
The crop of hay is housed in as good condition as could be desired, but is
not as 
large as that of last year, for two reasons: 1st, their fields have been
run too long 
in hay and need breaking up and re-seeding, having become foul and run down;
2d, this has been a very dry season, no rain having fallen since the middle
of May. 
Good wheat can be grown here if properly put in, and that in the fall. Oats
are 
more certain. Some of the finest fields of oats are now being harvested that
I have 
ever seen. Some lots will yield from 50 to 60 bushels per acre. Many fields
are light, 
owing to the slack manner of putting in. 
Number of acres under fence, 2,500; under cultivation, 1,440; acres of new
land 
broken, 18; new fence and old repaired, 1,513 rods. 
The amount of grain now being harvested I have estimated as follows, viz:
Oats I 
placed at 30 bushels per acre, 850 acres giving 25,500 bushels; wheat will
not be 
over 15 bushels per acre-1,700 bushels; potatoes will be very light owing
to the 
continued dry weather -20,000 bushels; turnips, 1,000 bushels; hay, 500 tons.
There 
are a great many small gardens, but poorly cultivated. We hope to overcome
much 
of this. We also have a garden of from 3 to 4 acres connected with the boarding-
house, cultivated by the school-boys, under the direction of our efficient
farmer, F. M. 
Stanton. I have carefully read the last annual report of my predecessor,
and have 
carefully studied the situation, and I really cannot give so flattering a
report as his. 
It is true the season has been against us, and many fields now sown in grain
are very 
foul and need to be summer-fallowed. There is an abundance of good land here,
and 
when rotation in crops is taught them we will be able to enlarge the figures.
Our old thrashing-machine has been repaired, and is now doing very fair work.
Our new machine has just arrived and will be in running order in a few days.
TRANSPORTATION. 
The greatest portion of our supplies come by schooner to Toledo, 8 miles
from the 
agency, from which point they are transported in wagons by Indians and the
Gov- 
ernment teams. During the fiscal year ending June 30 the Indians transported
with 
their own teams 105,829 pounds, and earned by such freighting the sum of
$351.64. 
To say that the work has been well done is but just to those doing the work.
I 
would join with Mr. Swan in urging that the supplies be forwarded at an earlier
date, 
if it can be done, so as to reach us before the fall rains set in, for the
reason that when 
these commence it about doubles the work and expense. 
INDIAN POLICE. 
On the first of July I reorganized the police force; some of the old ones
I dropped 
from the force, adding new ones. I retained the old captain as a private,
and pro- 
moted the acting sergeant. He was soon convicted of giving whisky to another
In- 
dian, and was removed from the force and also punished by confinement and
hard 
labor. I then again promoted the sergeant. The force is now doing good service
with a very few exceptions. I am satisfied that a course may be pursued here
that 
will give us a good police force. Of course some changes will have to be
made to 
effect it, but it will come in time. The greater portion of complaints brought
are for 
wife-whipping. 
SANITARY. 
The sanitary condition of the Indians will compare favorably with the whites
on 
this coast, with one exception, and that is the one great curse of venereal
diseases, 
which does fearful work among them. Our resident physician, Dr. F. M. Carter,
however, speaks hopefully in regard to the matter, and thinks he sees a slight
change 
for the better. I can truly say that our physician is doing his duty and
is endeavor- 
ing to help me in my efforts to bring this people up to a fair standard of
health and 
cleanliness. 
Number of births, 41; deaths, 29; number of Indians who have received medical
treatment during the year, 500. 
MILLS. 
We have a good saw-mill and flouring-mill, but cannot run them for want of
money. 
The great need just now is lumber; many, very many, wish to build. In fact,
there 


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