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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874

[California],   pp. 311-317 PDF (3.3 MB)

Page 312

and fifth rates; all now so much depleted that the average is low, our only
hope being in 
resting and summer-fallowing. In view of our locality, and the difficulties
of the work, I 
would respectfully call attention to the necessity of retaining, for the
present, our full force 
of employes, as the good of the service really seems to demand it. 
When I took charge of the reservation I found a pay-system in operation,
the Indians 
holding orders amounting to nearly $7,000, which the superintendent ordered
me to pay out 
of the annual supply of goods for the coming year. Such a result weakened
my confidence 
in this plan of working; but my observations for some time past have convinced
me that 
their ambition could be best stimulated by individual labor and pay, and
that a community 
of interest has a disparaging tendency; for though our Indians are as industrious
and cheer- 
ful in laboring as we could expect under the circumstances, yet their labor
is less constant 
and profitable than it should be. 
Your late instructions in regard to making goods, furnished by Government,
for labor, urged me to mature the best plan in my power to meet the case.
I would respect- 
fully call your attention to some method of so dividing the lands that there
shall be a feeling 
of ownership under the Government, as the desire to have good houses and
fence some 
amount of ground as their own has been more strongly manifested during the
last six 
months than before, and it seems to me that nothing could have more influence
to advance 
them than due attention and proper steps in that direction. 
In the early part of 1874, the peace and quiet of the Indians was disturbed,
and the 
workings of the reservation retarded, by a combination of miners and other
dissatisfied white 
men, seriously interfering also with our day-school; but matters are now
moving on more 
satisfactorily. We have an experienced and efficient teacher. Several Indians,
of both 
sexes, are able to read in the New Testament and in the Children's Paper,
distributed in our 
Sunday-school; they seem anxious to learn, and a e commencing to consider
the benefits. 
Those who have been much under our direction and influence are quite cleanly
in their 
persons, courteous in their manners, and exceedingly anxious to adopt the
practices and 
habits of civilized life. To strengthen and enlarge the circle of such influences,
I would 
earnestly call your attention to the necessity of another school upon this
reservation, and to 
the propriety of an appropriation for this purpose. If we could gather up
from the different 
tribes childien between the ages of six and fourteen, having them-sleep and
eat at houses 
prepared for the purpose, we could thus secure their constant attendance,
which, with the 
hinderances and allurements at their lodges, is at present almost impossible.
Our comfort- 
able school-building, with slight additions, would commode both schools.
Such a plan 
would place them under our eye, teach them domestic habits, and serve to
break down the 
clannishness which seens natural to them, and is a great obstacle to improvement.
As an auxiliary to the school, we need a competent, Christian woman, to spend
her entire 
time in teaching the women to make their own, their husbands', and children's
This is an absolute necessity, as it has, so far, devolved upon the teacher
and my own family, 
whose time will not allow as much attention as the matter demands. Many of
the women 
show great aptness in this direction, and are very anxious to improve. 
Upon the reservation we observe marks of civilization in various forms-less
very little fighting, and almost an entire exemption from drunkenness. Different
ideas ot 
virtue and of the duties of the married relation seem to be awaking in their
minds, and 
instances of a desire to do right for its own sake sometimes meet and refresh
The influence of a military post, occupying a mile within the heart of an
Indian reserva- 
tion, can be "only evil, and that continually." As calculated to
retard and almost render 
futile all civilizing and Christianizing influences, I would most respectfully
call your attention 
to its removal. A distance of twelve to fifteen miles, with no exchange of
visits allowed, 
would answer all our needs, and, in my opinion, still better subserve the
interests of the 
northwestern counties, as well as the Klamaths. 
We are hoping for a missionary at the coming conference of the Methodist
Church, as we need a man who can devote his time and energies to the work
of a Christian 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
United States Indian Agent. 
Hon. E. P. SMITH, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Waskington, D. C. 
Mendocino County, California, September 10, 1874. 
SIn: In compliance with the regulations of the Department, I have the honor
to submit 
his my second annual report as agent of the Rtound Valley United States Indian
ion, California. 

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