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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874

[New Mexico],   pp. 300-311 PDF (5.7 MB)

Page 304

considerable progress has been made. But we see here the same difficulty
which is experi- 
enced everywhere in teaching Indians. The teachers do not understand the
language of the 
children, nor the children the language of the teachers. For this reason
I would earnestly 
commend to you the plan of Agent Lewis for a training-school at which native
could be prepared. 
Among these, as well as all other Indians, I am of opinion that other things
besides let- 
ters should be taught. I would have them taught improved methods of farming,
the me 
chanic arts, and how to preserve and cook their food ; but the report of
the agent, in which 
I fully concur, is so full that I have little to add. The opposition of the
Roman Catholic 
priesthood to education among the Pueblos has been continued, and, in some
cases, retarded 
the agent's efforts. 
Allow me to report here my remarks of last year, relative to the salary of
agents and inter- 
preters. The present small salaries bring into the service too many incompetent
men. The 
position of agent is one which requires a man of trained business habits,
with education, 
mind, and heart enough to make him worth more than $1,500 a year at home.
An agent 
should be in the full vigor of manhood, bodily as well as mentally capable,
and should have 
force of character enough to enable him to impress the people with whom he
is to deal. Such 
men will enter the service when they are properly remunerated, but not many
I am more than ever satisfied that the true key-note of a successful Indian
policy is found 
in the golden rule, "Do unto others as ye would they should do unto
you." Kind and hon- 
est treatment. on the part of the Government, and the settler, resultsin
good feeling among the 
Indians, and peace ensues. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Late Superintendent Indian Affairs. 
Hon. EDw. P. SMITH, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C. 
Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico, October 6, 1874. 
SIR: I am just in receipt of your circular-letter of -September 14. You say,
" You are 
directed to forward the annual report of your agency, in duplicate, in time
to reach the 
Department not later than the 1st of October ;" and in another paragraph,
"Your report will 
cover the year ending August 31, 1874, and should give all details necessary
to furnish this 
Office with full information relative to your agency." Having assumed
the duties of this 
office as lately as the 1st instant, it will not be expected that I attempt
to make what would 
be termed " an annual report." 
Since the transfer of the last regularly appointed agent from this to another
agency, which 
occurred only last spring, the position of agent, or "farmer in charge,"
has been filled by 
two different persons, and however well qualified the gentleman occupying
the position 
might be. it could not be expected that much advance would be made in bettering
the con- 
dition of the Indians. I feel justified in saying, from conversation with
resident citizens, as 
well as voluntary expressions from the Indians, that they (the Indians) very
much regret 
these frequent changes, and I doubt not but the Department regard them as
although unavoidable. 
I understand that, by a treaty made with the Indians of this agency during
the last year 
by the Government, through the Indian Commissioner, the Indians were to be
nently located on a reservation then determined on. A delegation of these
Indians visited 
Washington last fall, perhaps in November, and they claim that, while there,
the President 
promised them that they should be removed to their reservation by the time
the leaves were 
on the trees, in the spring; that they should have a physician, teachers,
blacksmith, &c.; in 
short, that they should in everything, including annuities, be placed in
an equally favor- 
able condition with the Indians of the Los Pinos agency; and they are dissatisfied,
some of 
them very much so, that this has not been done. I assured them that whatever
the Presi- 
dent promised them he intended to do; but that it required time, and they
must wait 
If this representation is in accordance with the treaty, I respectfully urge
upon the Depart- 
ment the importance of determining the boundaries of their reservation by
a survey, which 
I learn has not been done, and the removal of the Indians to it the coming
spring, which will 
be as soon as it will now be practicable to do so, on account of the severe
weather and deep 
snows during the winter. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
United States Indian Agent, Abtquia Agency. 
Washington, D. C. 

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