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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874

[New Mexico],   pp. 300-311 PDF (5.7 MB)

Page 303

good as the old, unless the town of Cafiada Alamosa is purchased. I must
disagree with 
the agent entirely, for several reasons. The Indians regard the new reservation
as their 
home, and left the same locality to go to Tulerosa, with great reluctance,
and were never 
satisfied while there. The climate at the new reservation is more favorable,
and crops will 
mature there in seasons when they will be killed by frost at Tulerosa. There
is on the new res- 
ervation more land which can be irrigated with a little labor than the Indians
will need for 
purposes of cultivation. By building a dam across the canon, just below the
spring, its waters can be turned up the valley far enough to irrigate many
acres, I think 
about 5,000. I believe the reservation would be improved by buying the town
of Canada 
Alamosa, but do not think its purchase absolutely necessary to make the new
reservation a 
success. The purchase of the town would isolate the Indians from all settlements
and prob- 
ably prevent much whisky-selling, and other illicit traffic. I would recommend
that an esti- 
mate of the cost be made and the subject considered. The purchase of the
town would save 
the erection of agency buildings and the preparation of the land for farming
purposes, and 
everything would there be in readiness for planting in the spring. Should
the Indians now 
upon the Chiricahua reservation be removed to Hot Springs, it might be best
to purchase 
Canada Alamosa. I can give no estimate of the cost, but think it might not
be large, as the 
title to the land is still in the Government. 
I know of no place so favorably situated for a reservation upon which all
the Apaches 
might be collected as this, and if such a policy were settled upon, and the
town purchased, 
the reservation could be enlarged by extending it both south and west, and
the cost of the 
several Apache agencies might be saved. If it can be accomplished, I know
of no policy 
relating to the Apaches so important. 
There has been but little change in the condition of this people since my
last report. 
During the past winter, which was unusually severe, a large number of the
sheep upon the 
reservation were killed by cold and starvation, and the failure of their
crop the previous 
season, together with the severity of the weather, caused much suffering
and considerable 
loss of life. But the Navajoes seem to have borne their accumulated troubles
with great for- 
titude, .and, while an outbreak was generally feared, they conducted themselves
well. Some 
effort to educate the young has been made, but with slight success; for it
is difficult to se- 
cure regular attendance upon schools while the children are following the
nomadic habits of 
their parents, and while the scholars converse in their own tongue continually,
it is exceed- 
ingly difficult to teach them English. Some form of boarding-school ought
to be established, 
and the children separated from their parents. In fact, I do not look for
any general educa- 
tion of Indian children until native teachers have first been trained. 
I am still of opinion that if a subagency were established in the valley
of the San Juan 
River, on the north end of the reservation, that the Navajoes would much
sooner become self- 
Although the Weeminuche and Capote Utes, who make their home at this agency,
parties to the treaty of 1673, they continue to reside here for the greater
part of the year. 
The band of Jicarilla Apaches, who also live at this agency, still remain.
The treaty made 
by Mr. Dolan has not been put in force, and, therefore, these Indians have
no location ex- 
cept this. 
The agency is upon a private land grant, and of course the Indians must be
removed at 
some future time. My opinion is that if they can be induced to take the reservation
set apart 
by Mr. Dolan, that it will be well; if not, a location of these Indians,
and those at Cimarron, 
upon the Dry Cimarron in the northeast corner of the Territory, would be
good policy. 
Their location there would be a barrier against the Cheyennes, Comanches,
and Kiowas, and 
aid the troops in protecting the settlements. The Utes at both these agencies
belong upon 
the reserve in Colorado, and ought to be removed thither. 
The Indians at this agency are also upon a private land grant. As the country
is becom- 
ing more thickly populated every year, I think there should be as little
delay as possible in 
securing their removal to a reservation. They can be removed at any time
by a show of 
determination to make them go, but they have been so long petted and spoiled
that it is 
amost impossible to get them to consent to anything. 
The condition of the Pueblo Indians of :New Mexico has not much changed since
my last 
report, but such changes as have occurred have been for the better. Through
the energetic 
efforts of Agent Lewis eight schools have been in successful operation during
the year, and 

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