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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

[Indian Territory],   pp. 218-238 PDF (10.2 MB)


Page 232

232     REPORT    OF THE    COMMISSIONER       OF INDIAN     AFFAIRS. 
DETACHED BANDS. 
The detached bands of the Sac and Fox tribe, referred to in my report for
1873, I learn 
are still in Iowa and Kansas, notwithstanding the desire my people have for
them to come 
to this reservation. 
CIVILIZATION. 
We fully recognize a generally conceded fact-that the school is the best,
quickest, and, 
we may say, the only means of effectijg a permanent civilization. The obstacles
in the way 
of this means are multiform, and some of them very formidable. First among
these I shall 
denominate " the social hinderauce." By this I mean that what a
child may acquire, during 
a few months, in book-knowledge, or of the customs and manners of the whites,
may be 
laughed out of him in a short time by his parents and former friends and
associates ; and 
that when a young person desires to become civilized and live as civilized
people, he is almost 
compelled to live a life of seclusion, inasmuch as he cannot find agreeable
associations among 
the whtes on account of race and prejudice, and as his ways and those of
his kinsmen, who 
are generally in a large majority, are so diverse. The only remedy I know
of to suggest for 
this hinderance, is that, instead of trying to civilize a tribe of Indians
by educating 15 per 
cent. of its children, they should all grow up as much as possible in a well-conducted
man- 
ual-labor school, where they may acquire regular habits of cleanliness, industry,
and up- 
rightness, that when the children leave the school all their associates may
be in sympathy 
with them. Thus in a short time a strong public sentiment will be formed
in favor of civ- 
ilization. 
Second. The lack of power to hold the children in school under all circumstances;
conse- 
quently, in the absence of legislative action and of the feasibility of physical
force, we have. 
as our only resort, the influence of benevolence and of kind treatment to
prevent their leaving 
when a little provoked. 
Third. The tenacity with which they adhere to their habits of lust, filthiness,
and obscenity. 
Nothing will prevent this save the constant parental care and presence of
the superintendent, 
matron, or teacher, who have a Christian concern not only for their present
but for their 
future welfare. 
Fourth. Their deep-seated disgust for regular manual labor. This is to be
overcome only by 
thorough training under the supervision of an industrious and economical
farmer, and then 
leaving the Indian as far as possible on his own resources for a subsistence.
Much of the 
indolence among this people is caused by their custom of having things in
common. Experi- 
ence shows us that good Christian women and well-trained white children are
the best 
civilizers and christianizers we have. 
The most potent and lasting influence exercised over those who do not attend
school is 
exerted by the employes and traders, because it is expected their work will
be a practical 
demonstration of a well-formed character, a true and upright heart. And if
any employ6, 
either by word or deed, fails to give a hearty support to the policy and
to the fundamental 
principles of Christianity, there is a contradiction between the theory and
practice of a 
"Quaker peace policy." 
Respectfu)ly submitted, 
JOHN H. PICKERING, 
United States Indian Agent. 
UPPER ARKANSAS AGENCY, INDIAN TERRITORY, 
Ninthmonth 30, 1874. 
Hon. EDW. P. SMITH, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C.: 
In accordance with the requirements of the Indian Department, I submit the
following as 
my third annual report of the Indians under my charge, to wit: Cheyennes,
Arapahoes, and 
a few Apaches. 
Arapahoes, (actual count:) 
Men................................................................401 
Women----------------------------------------------------423 
Male children.   .     .    .     .      .    .     ..------------------------------------------------361
Female  children......................................................465
Total in tribe. .     .    .    .     .    .     .   ..----------------------------------------------1,1650
Cheyennes, (Whirlwind's band:) 
Men...       .       .      .       .      .      ..--------------------------------------------------------80
Women.      .      .      .     .     .     .      ..-----------------------------------------------------94
Male children--------------------------------------....50 
Female children--------------------------------------------.....   56 
Total present------------------------------------------------.... 280, 


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