University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
The History Collection

Page View

United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

[Indian Territory],   pp. 218-238 PDF (10.2 MB)


Page 231

REPORT     OF THE    COMMISSIONER       OF INDIAN     AFFAIRS.     231 
The amount of land in cultivation is as follows:A 
Acres. 
Sacs and Foxes................................................................375
Absentee Shawnees............................................................1,022
Kickapoos .---------------------........-------------------------------------28
Nine-tenths of the above is in corn, which will give them an average yield
of -20 bushels 
per acre. The remainder is in potatoes, pumpkins, &c. 
Thr y own stock as follows: 
Horses.  Cattle.  :Hogs. 
Sacs and Foxes.-.--.--------------------------------------- 1,006  1,100
 2,162 
Absentee Shawnees .......................................... 8S7  1,678 
  3,642 
Kickapoos-............  ..-----------------------------------.330  .....
    30 
The horses of the Sacs and Foxes and Absentee Shawnees are much better than
an average 
of the Indian ponies. The Shawnees are producing good, serviceable mules
and horses, and 
have a good stock of cattle. The Absentee Shawnees and Kickapoos have received
no 
assistance from Government. The Sacs and Foxes receive an annuity of $60
per capia, after 
paying physician, blacksmith and gunsmith, repairs, and running saw-mill,
aLd A$500 to each 
of four chiefs. They get but little wild game. 
IMPROVEMENTS. 
The buildings called for by treaty have been completed, as far as funds would
permit, as 
follows: Manual-labor school, completed; dwelling-houses for chiefs, completed.
Dwell- 
ings for agent, blacksmith, and physician are not completed. Ten thousand
dollars are 
fltaled for in the treaty of February 18, 1867, but only $6,000 have been
appropriated. If 
the remaining $4,000 could be obtained, these buildings could be completed,
and the Indians 
satisfied that the Government intends to comply with its promises. 
Sixteen new houses have been erected by the Indians. The Sacs and Foxes appropriate
$100 out of their annuity for each of their houses erected, to be used in
paying for material 
and carpenter-work. They are now very much concerned about good water. Six
wells 
have been dug, besides those at the agency, and good water obtained; cost
about $100 each. 
Several more are now being dug. This work they are doing, or getting done,
with their 
means, which is a move in the right direction. Thirteen Sac and Fox families
have planted 
apple and peach orchards. They have purchased with their annuity, twenty-six
plows,- 
fourteen farm-wagons, and fourteen sets of double harness, and have distributed
them to 
those families who were most needy. 
Improved stock of cattle and hogs have been purichased by the manual-labor
school. and 
the school will soon be able to supply the Indians from the same. 
SCHOOLS. 
The manual-labor school, under its present management, has been an entire
success. The 
Sacs and Foxes on the reservation have only 48 children over six years old,
and this school 
has 28 of them. All the children, except one, who have attended the school
long enough to 
become acquainted are there now, and will, no doubt, remain. These 28 children
are happy 
and contented; have good clothes to wear and good food to eat; are courteous
to their 
teachers and to one another, and have made satisfactory progress in their
studies. 
The treaty sets aside one section of land for the use of this school. It
now occupies, in 
grain, 80 acres; meadow, 50 acres; pasture, 320 acres; total, 450 acres.
It is stocked with 
fifty-two head of cattle and fifty head of hogs, and has produced a good
crop of wheat, oats, 
and corn this year. The hay is short on account of drought. 
The school is conducted by a farmer and assistant, matron and assistant,
teacher and cook. 
The day-school with the Shawnees is educating about 20 children. They live
so remote 
from one another that it is impossible for them to have a larger day-school.
They appreci- 
ate the school and should have a manual-labor school, but are not able to
support one without 
assistance. It costs more to pay the instructors than the labor of the pupils
is worth 
pecuniarily. This, I believe, is a fact not realized by those who have had
no experience 
with instructing Indian children; yet to teach them to work is one of the
first objects to gain 
in their civilization. 
EDUCATION AND RELIGION. 
Their religion is principally traditional antagonism to civilization, and
an individual who 
patronizes the school, or follows the customs of the whites, is stigmatized
as a traitor to their 
Great Spirit, consequently we get but few of the full-blood children to attend
school other 
than those who are orphans. Those of the children who can talk and read understandingly
in English look upon this traditional religion as we do. 
EMPLOYtS. 
:My employcs, aside from the school, are all Indians, except two carpenters,
a physician, 
and a gunsmith. These are all good men and in sympathy with the designs of
Government 
in th~e civilization of the Indians. 


Go up to Top of Page