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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

Information, with historical and statistical statements, relative to the different tribes and their agencies,   pp. 23-[84] PDF (29.5 MB)


Page 76

76    REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
MALHEUR AGENCY.-The Malheur reservation, on the North Fork of 
the Malheur River, containing 2,275 square miles, was set apart by 
executive order, March 14 1871, as a common home for the straggling 
bands of Shoshones, Bannacks, and Pi Utes, estimated to number about 
1,000, in Southwestern Oregon. Game and salmon abound. Portions 
of it are suited to agriculture, and an agency-farm of 55 acres has been
opened, and some agency-buildings erected. A few Indian families 
have cultivated small patches of land, but the body of these Indians 
during the summer have been absent engaged in hunting and fishing. 
UMATILLA AGENCY.-The Walla- Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla Indians, 
numbering 837, are living on a reservation of 268,000 acres in the 
northeastern part of the State. The past year about 1,500 acres have 
been under cultivation, and, with one-half the crop destroyed by crickets,
3,000 bushels of wheat and 2,000 bushels of oats have been gathered. 
During the summer the Indians wander away from the reservation to 
hunt, and gather roots and berries in the mountains, taking their chil- 
dren from school and neglecting their cultivated fields. 
Their lands have been surveyed preparatory to allotment. About one- 
half of these people wear citizens' dress; they own 8,000 horses and 
2,000 cattle. 
WARM SPRING AGENCY.-The Wasco, Warm Springs, and Tinino 
Indians, numbering 680, are on a reservation of 464,000 acres, in the 
northern "part of the State. Of this more than one-half is mountainous
and covered with timber, mostly pine. The remainder contains but a 
limited portion of tillable land, yet sufficient to supply the needs of the
Indians, and, as an additional inducement to individual inprovement, 
should be allotted in severalty. Nearly all wear citizens' dress. Two 
schools have been successfully sustained. Eight hundred acres have 
been under cultivation, and, although crickets and drought have reduced 
the yield to one-third of a crop, 5,000 bushels of wheat, 1,000 bushels 
of potatoes, and smaller quantities of vegetables have been raised. 
WASHING-TON TERRITORY. 
YAKAXA AGENCY.-The Yakamas, 3,500 in number, are located on a 
reservation of 800,000 acres in the southern part of Washington Terri- 
tory. About half of the tribe wear citizens' dress, and are engaged in 
agriculture. During the past year they have had 3,000 acres under 
cultivation, and have raised 16,000 bushels wheat, 3,000 bushels oats, 
and 2,000 bushels potatoes, and although the crops were injured by 
crickets and drought they will be more than sufficient to subsist them 
comfortably. They own 13,000 horses and 12,000 head of cattle, and 
catch large quantities of salmon both for subsistence and sale. Over 
400,000 feet of logs have been cut, hauled, and sawed by the Indians 
under the direction of three white employs; and in building fence, 
hauling hay, lumber, and wood, and building bridges, &c., they 
have labored industriously. From their earnings, five have purchased 
wagons. Two schools are in successful operation. Apprentices under 
the miller, blacksmith, carpenter, and harness maker are fast becoming 
competent workmen. The greatest drawback here seems to be the strife 
between religious societies. 
Learning that two members of the board of Indian commissioners 
were about to visit the Pacific coast in connection with the purchase of
goods for the Department, I made request of the commissioners that 
they would examine, as far as practicable, any agencies coming within 
the reach of their journey, and offer suggestions and recommendations 


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