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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

Information, with historical and statistical statements, relative to the different tribes and their agencies,   pp. 23-[84] PDF (29.5 MB)


Page 24

24   REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
an early settlement of the questions involved in these leases. A satis- 
factory settlement can be arrived at only through a commission duly 
authorized, who shall make inquiries upon the-pot and give full hearing 
to all parties. 
MICHIGAN. 
MICHIGAN AGENCY.-The Indians in Michigan, consisting of four 
tribes, with a population of 8,923, are located at four points widely sepa-
rated from each other, but all included under one agency. 
The Ottawas and Chippewas of Michigan, 6,170 in number, live upon 
lands which have been set apart, and in most instances patented to 
them in fee-simple, under the provisions of the treaty of July 21, 1855.
These lands are scattered along the shore of Lake Michigan in the 
lower peninsula, and on the shore of Lake Superior in the upper 
peninsula. These Indians are no longer wards of the Government, 
but have attained the rights of citizenship and are entirely self-sup- 
porting. They cultivate farms, which they have greatly improved 
during the year, stimulated thereto by the issuing to them of patents 
for the lands which have been allotted to them. They have culti- 
vated 15,000 acres, and have raised 24,000 bushels wheat; 10,750 
bushels corn; 6,283 bushels oats; 21,000 bushels potatoes, besides a 
large supply of other vegetables, and have made 32,000 rods of fence. 
They are, however, very destitute of educational facilities, having but 
one small district-school, and in this respect they have retrograded ever
since the withdrawal of Government aid by the expiration of their 
treaty stipulations. They are not yet able to support schools them- 
selves, and unless they speedily receive outside aid, the present genera-
tion will be far behind the previous one in general intelligence. 
The L'Ans6 band of Chippewas of Lake Superior, 1,118 in number, 
are on a reservation of 52,684 acres on both sides of Keewenaw Bay, in 
the extreme northern part of the State. They subsist largely on fish. 
The recent allotment of their lands in severalty will undoubtedly 
awaken a much greater interest in farming. They have two Govern- 
ment schools, with an attendance of 75 pupils; also two missions. They 
receive this year their last annuity payment in fulfillment of treaty 
obligations. 
The Chippewas of Saginaw, Swan Creek, and Black River, 1,575 in 
"number, are located on a reservation containing 138,240 acres, in Isabella
County, near the center of the lower peninsula, of which there remains 
not patented to the Indians in severalty 11,097 acres. They are 
more advanced in civilization than any other tribes in the agency, are 
peaceable, law-abiding citizens, growing in intelligence and prosperity.
About half of them live on the reservation ; the other half are gathered
in seven or eight different settlements, where they have purchased land.
Their educational fund is ample. They have three schools supported 
by Government, and seven smaller ones among the different districts, 
attended by 283 pupils. They have raised 4,585 bushels wheat; 25,840 
bushels corn; 4,657 bushels potatoes; besides a large quantity of onions,
turnips, and beans. 
The Pottawatomies of Huron, 60 in number, own in common 160 acres, 
100 of which are fenced and cultivated. They have one school, which 
nearly all their children attend. 
All these reservations are fertile and well wooded. The Indians have 
adopted the citizens' dress and live in comfortable log houses. Sixty- 
nine houses have been built during the year, making the total number 
1,230. 


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