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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1857

California superintendency,   pp. 387-408 PDF (8.6 MB)

Page 407

probably combines more advantages in point of soil, water, climate, 
&c., than any other locality in southern California. The Cavesons 
who now reside there are represented as industrious and thriving 
Indians, having supported themselves comfortably by raising vegeta- 
bles in small gardens of their own cultivation, with the addition of 
mesquite beans, which to a great extent abound in that valley. 
As the Cavesons have managed, by a limited cultivation of the soil, 
to provide themselves with the ordinary comforts of life without the aid
of the general government, it is presumed that their example would 
have a salutary influence upon the Indians who may be concentrated 
in their immediate vicinity, and induce them, by increased exertion 
and industry, at least to support themselves with the annual aid they 
will receive from the government. If you should coincide with these 
views, you will take the requisite steps to ascertain whether there 
would be any difficulty in the way of the proposed locality, in conse- 
quence of land claims or settlements of any character; and if so, you' 
will procure from the respective claimants written statements of the 
amounts they would be willing to receive in full consideration of the 
same; but in soliciting these facts, it is expected that you will proceed
with proper caution, so as not to excite the cupidity of land claimants,
or cause any unnecessary alarm among the whites or Indians now 
residing in that valley. And you will be careful to give each claim 
that may be set up to land within the area of the contemplated reserve 
a scrutinizing investigation with regard to the legality of title, and 
properly represent all the facts and circumstances of each claim, as 
to extent and value, in your report to this office,.that there may be 
no difficulty in deciding upon the reasonable value of the same. If 
there should be no obstacle to forbid your progress in the accomplish- 
ment of the leading object sought, you will at once designate the 
exterior boundaries of the new reservation to include a sufficient 
quantity of agricultural land to subsist all the Indians who are now 
within the Tejon or Fresno reserves, and all the bands south and 
southwest of the Fresno. 
You will perceive that it is contemplated to abandon the Tejon, the 
Fresno, and all the Indian ranches or farms between the latter point 
and the southern boundary of the State, and concentrate the Indians 
thereof within the valley of the San Gorgonio pass. 
The growing importance of Mendocino reservation, and the develop- 
ment of its agricultural resources, naturally indicate a suitable point 
of concentration for all the Indians now living within the Nome 
Lackee reserve, and all the bands or tribes west of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains, north of the Fresno, and at present dependent on the 
Nome Lackee reservation ; but if you should not deem it advisable to 
abandon the Nome Lackee reserve, then the Indians in the neighbor- 
hood of Pitt river and west of the Sierra Nevada range of mountains, 
should be concentrated within the said reservation ; however, I am 
inclined to favor the locality of the Mendocino, as it is on the coast, 
and comparatively easy of access, which is in item that should not be 
overlooked in the economy of modifying our Indian policy in Cali- 
The recent explorations between the reservation and Cape Mendo- 

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