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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1855

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,   pp. [1]-21 PDF (9.4 MB)

Page 5

as well as the Omahas, have been assigned to the Presbyterian Board 
of Missions. 
The Pawnees and Poncas, who, with the Omahas, and Ottoes, and 
Missourias, constitute the Council Bluffs agency, are in an unsettled 
state. The former claim a large tract of country in Nebraska, and in 
their roving habits have not even confined themselves to it. They 
have infested the emigrant roads and been very annoying. The 
Poncas have also been guilty of depredations, and have the character 
of lawless Indians. 
The Pawnees recently informed their agent that they desired to 
treat with the government and to sell their country; and it is also 
understood that the Poncas are anxious to make some treaty arrange- 
ments. It is very desireable that the Pawnees and Poncas should be 
brought under some restraint, and advantageous treaty arrangements 
can, it is believed, be now made with them. 
The Ioways and Missouri Sacs and Foxes, of the Great Nemahaw 
agency, have, during the past year, manifested some interest in agri- 
cultural pursuits, and otherwise improved in their habits and dispo- 
sition. It is to be regretted that so many of them are still unwilling 
to avail themselves of the ample facilities afforded for the education 
of their children. Their excellent missionary teachers continue, how- 
ever, with unabated zeal and diligence, which must, in time, result 
in overcoming the apathy of the Indians on this important subject. 
The Kickapoos have raised and secured sufficient supplies for their 
subsistence during the winter; and a portion of them have provided 
better accommodations for themselves by the erection of comfortable 
log cabins on the reservation set apart for them. It is gratifying to 
know that there has been less intemperance amongst them than usual, 
and that they are beginning to realize the importance of taking effi- 
cient measures to rid themselves of this vice. 
The circumstances by which the Delaware Indians have been sur- 
rounded since the organization of the territory of Kansas, and the 
trespasses upon their rights and other irregularities of their new 
neighbors, have not been such as to impress them very favorably with 
our civilization. Reposing, however, with confidence in the govern- 
ment, the Delawares, generally, have applied themselves to agricul- 
tural pursuits and have realized a supply of food for the year. Their 
agent has been unremitting in his exertions to protect their rights 
and advance their interests. 
The agent for the Shawnees and Wyandotts reports that they "have 
enjoyed during the last twelve months almost uninterrupted pros- 
perity and they are now rejoicing in an abundant return from the toils 
and labors of the husbandman." These are the most civilized tribes 
of the central superintendency; many of them being educated and 
sufficiently advanced to appreciate, and desire to be invested with, 
the privileges and duties of citizens of the United States. A treaty 
placing the Wyandotts in that position, and providing for the termi- 
nation of their annuities and the division of the principal thereof 
amongst them, as well as of their lands in severalty, was negotiated 
with them last winter, and ratified by the President and Senate. 
Their tribal organization has therefore ceased, except so far as its 

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