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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I

Reports concerning Indians in Washington,   pp. 355-371 PDF (8.3 MB)

Page 366

The court service is good, and all the parties concerned are prompt in their
ance. Twenty-five cases (mostly cases of drunkenness) were disposed of during
year, the offenders being punished by hard labor on the reservation roads.
In general, I believe the moral customs are good. Civilized, legal marriage
is strictly 
observed. In regard to civilization I believe we are doing fairly well. Liquor
among the people is a bad one. 
WILLIAM MCCLUSKEY, Farmer in Charge. 
TULALIP RESERVATION, August 15, 1905. 
The increase in the amount of land cleared and brought under cultivation
since this 
time last year, though small, is noticeable. Although a large number of acres
can not 
be brought under cultivation in any one year, owing to the labor and expense
of clearing 
an acre, yet each year some cleared acres are added to those of the previous
year. It is 
estimated that it costs on the average $100 to clear an acre of timber land
in many 
portions of this State. The Indian here first sells the timber off the tract
he is permitted 
to clear, and the net profit from the sale of the logs is all he has to support
himself and 
family while he is removing the stumps and brush from the logged-off land.
As the 
profit from sales of logs cut in this manner is never large, the amount of
land cleared 
and cultivated each year is not large. The future generation of Indians on
this reserva- 
tion must depend on the soil for its livelihood. This creates an actual need
for the es- 
tablishment of a good, practical agency school to teach the future generation
the processes 
of farming and how best to wrest a living from the allotments which will
be their future 
heritage and mainstay. 
Allotments.-With the exception of about 885 acres all the land of this reservation
has been allotted. During the past year patents for same were obtained and
much to the satisfaction of the Indian allottees. Some advancement in the
building and 
making of better homes has been made, though this has not been great. 
Road making and repairing.-The work in repairing, improving, and renewing
the old 
roads and bridges on the reservation has progressed satisfactorily since
last year. Tula- 
lip Reservation now possesses as good dirt roads as can be found in this
county, but the 
rainy winter season will play havoc with these, as usual. Not only have the
old roads 
and bridges been kept in good condition and repair, but more than a mile
of the old 
road has been graveled and about a mile of new road has been made, one new
being included therein. 
The making of a mile of new road through timbered country along established
divisional lines involves far more labor than that distance of road suggests.
The slash- 
ing of the right of way is the preliminary step, which of itself takes much
time and labor. 
After the slashing has been done, grubbing and grading follow. Puncheon must
be made 
and laid and covered with soil, and ditches, drains, and culverts made where
the roadway 
does not readily drain itself. One half of the mile of new road has been
treated as above 
described, while the other half has been graded. This new road has been made
enough so that teams can pass without difficulty. 
Nearly all of this new road, with all the work on the old road, has been
done by Indian 
labor. Each male Indian between the ages of 21 and 45, numbering about 75
put in five days of road work during the year. This regular labor, plus the
labor of 
the Indians working out fines imposed by the Indian court for drunkenness
and other 
misdemeanors over which the court has cognizance, has been the only means
of accom- 
plishing road work, the benefit of which is permanent to all. The value of
road improve- 
ment and the public advantages and benefits to be derived therefrom have
been thoroughly 
impressed upon the Indians. They have now become interested in their roads
and road 
work, and are somewhat jealous of their reputations as road builders. 
The advantages that would accrue to the agency if it were in possession of
a strong 
and seaworthy launch have bien set forth many times hitherto and in previous
It is again referred to in the report for-the agency this year. This reservation
be able to profit by the possession of such a launch. Tulalip has an excellent
which is in constant use for landing of freight and passengers. The freight
for the 
entire agency is consigned here. Shipments are made here, to and fro, at
a time of 
the year when the best of Washington roads are unfitted for freighting by
reason of 
the steady rains. It would be economy of time, labor, and money to be able
to handle and 
direct our own shipments by water instead of depending upon the uncertain
and convenience of those who are now handling the Government freight for
us at 
their own pleasure. 
Industries.-Much of the cleared land on the different allotments that is
not being 
used for pasture is being utilized either for the production of hay, grain,
or fruit, and the products of the soil form a part of the living of the Indians.
ing- furnishes occasional occupation and food and an additional small income
to some 
families living sufficiently near the shores of the Sound to avail themselves
of this 
additional means of support. The white man's methods of concentration, consolidation,
and especially of trap fishing are sadly depleting the natural larders of
the Puget 
Sound Indian and materially impairing that condition which has made the Puget
Indian always hitherto self-supporting, and hence unique in the history of
work among the Indian people. The fisheries and lumbering form the two great
tries of the State. Their tremendous development, capitalization, and pursuit,
every possible modern device and aid, have left the Indian (dependent upon
these indus- 
tries for his livelihood) well-nigh stranded and well-nigh destitute, and
may speedily 
give rise to an Indian problem where none has hitherto existed. 
A few of the older women knit lumbermen's socks and weave baskets for sale.
principal industry for the future is going to be general farming, and in
a few years those 
who are now depending on logging will be compelled to depend upon their farm
for a living. 
Education.--The Government has made a small and tardy start with these people
fulfill the treaty obligations made half a century ago to build, equip, and
maintain an 

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