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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I

Reports concerning Indians in California,   pp. 180-195 PDF (7.8 MB)

Page 194

Drunkenness and crime.-The most discouraging feature in all our Indian 
work is the constant and increasing drunkenness among the Indians and the
-crimes and debauchery arising therefrom. We have secured a few convictions
where the evidence was so conclusive and convincing as to be beyond question.
It is little trouble for the Indians to secure whisky. For a small sum a
Mexican or miserable white man, who acts as go-between, can get the, intoxi-
cant, and in most instances it seems impossible to detect him in transferring
to the Indian. When we must almost wholly depend upon the unwilling testi-
mony of the Indians themselves we are helpless. 
As a result of the use of liquor by Indians many crimes have been committed,
two very serious -and notable ones in this jurisdiction, viz, the shooting
Policeman Martin Jauro, at the San Jacinto Reservation, and Policeman James
Alto, of the Tule River Reservation. The Tule River policeman was shot by
Rosindo Ellis, who was at the time drunk. There was no cause whatever for
the shooting, as the policeman was simply trying to quiet Ellis and prevent
disturbing the peace. The policeman is slowly recovering and Ellis is in
Martin Jauro, the policeman at San Jacinto, was shot by an Indian named 
Paulino Resveloso, whd was undoubtedly under the influence of liquor at the
time. The policeman received a mortal wound and died within three days 
from the time he was shot. He was a most excellent man and his murderer is
now in jail awaiting his trial in October. 
In this connection it seems proper for me to say that there is a very urgent
necessity for amending the Federal statutes for the punishment of Indians
who make assaults with deadly weapons or with intent to kill upon other 
Indians on an Indian reservation. As the law stands now, interpreted by 
Judge Welborn of the United States Federal court at Los Angeles, an Indian
may assault another upon a reservation, shoot or cut him with intent to commit
murder, and we can do nothing with him. Such cutting and shooting scrapes
are frequent. The Indians are aware that there is no punishment for these
crimes. In view of this fact I fear that we can not punish Ellis for his
on the policeman at Tule River unless the policeman should die within' the
year, when we could hold him on the charge of murder. By all means the law
should be amended during the coming winter. 
In conclusion, I will say that in a report of this kind only the main features
of the work can be embodied, as it is impossible to chronicle the multitudinous
small matters to which a superintendent is compelled to give his attention.
Superintendent and Special Disbursing Agent. 
COVELO, CAL., September 12, 1905. 
The same improvement in conditions as has been reported in previous years
can be said to have been continued during the past year. No radical changes
have been effected or attempted. The Indians are as industrious and, I believe,
more law-abiding than the average citizen in the surrounding community, 
and while there are many things working to their detriment, yet they are
making rapid strides toward civilized citizenship, which, if continueX' will
eliminate the necessity of maintaining this agency in a very few years. The
principal duties now of the superintendent here are connected with the school.
All the Indians speak and understand English, and transact their own business
in a very similar manner and quite as successfully as the average white 
person. It is only occasionally that matters arise, aside from regular routine
office business, which require the personal attention of the superintendent.
The census by tribes is as follows: Concow, 171; Little Lake and Redwood,
114; Pit River and Nomelaki, 80; Yuki and Wailaki, 250; total, 615. 
Health and mortality.-Barring an epidemic which was pronounced by the 
physician to be whooping cough, the health of the Indians for the past year
been reasonably good. 
There have been 10 births and 18 deaths recorded. The principal causes of
death, as heretofore, have been old age and tubercular troubles. The physician,
Judson Liftchild, has enjoyed continued success in his treatment of cases
erally. He seems to be very much interested in his Indian work and devotes

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