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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I

Reports concerning Indians in California,   pp. 180-195 PDF (7.8 MB)

Page 185

the Yuma and expresses his desire to make his life work among these people.
A number of improvements about the church property have been made. 
School.-Although we have every available pupil from the reservation in 
school, the attendance was smaller than usual. This was caused by our sending
more pupils to nonreservation schools than ever before and to an epidemic
running away to Mexico, which took place among the larger pupils just before
school opened in the fall. Schoolroom work and industrial work in most de-
partments was good. A great deal of work on the farm-leveling, ditching.
plowing, and planting-went for naught because of floods. We have sent 6 
pupils to Carlisle, I to Phoenix, and 11 to Riverside within the past year.
JOHN S. SPEAR, Superintendeit. 
HOOPA, CAL., August 31, 1905. 
The condition of the Hupa Indians is a matter of pride in many respects.
As a tribe and as individuals they are superior to most of the western Indians.
They were well advanced in civilization when I came here four years ago,
there has been a slow but noticeable improvement from year to year. My 
efforts to make them more self-reliant and independent were at first misunder-
stood, and they thought my attitude was due to lack of interest in them and
their welfare; but they are beginning to see that a greater dependence on
own efforts and less leaning on the arm of the Government is for their own
good. All the able-bodied men earn a good living for themselves and their
families by freighting, wood cutting, lumbering, sheep shearing, packing,
ing, gardening, and stock raising. Many can read and write. Nearly all do
more or less farming, some being very successful in this line. Many self-binders,
mowers, rakes, and other agricultural implements, and wagons have been pur-
chased by them, and their funds are usually expended judiciously. Experience
has taught them to be more careful to plan and provide for future needs.
Agriculture.-Farming operations were very successful during the past year,
partly owing to favorable climatic conditions. Oats and oat hay are the main
crops, the yield of the former being 11,160 bushels against an average of
bushels for the three years previous, and of the latter, 625 tons, the average
yield being 340 tons. There is a shortage in the potato crop owing to drought.
Efforts have been made to interest the Indians in cooperative irrigation
but with only moderate success owing to jealousies and factions among them.
Several individual ditches are maintained. 
Allotments averaging 20 acres of land to the individual have been made to
Hupa families of 395 individuals, but have not yet been approved. The survey
of the reservation should be completed and additional allotments of timber
grazing land should be made. The reservation is very mountainous in character
and there is little, if any, unallotted farming land on it. The number of
ments on the extension is 485 and the average size is 40 acres; on the Klamath
River Reservation, 161 allotments averaging over 60 acres. Only a very small
percentage of this land is suitable for farming purposes. 
Basket making.-This is a special industry of the Hupa women, whose product
is world famous. The Hupa basket is superior in beauty and artistic excellence
to those made by most Indian tribes, and the demand for choice specimens
far greater than the supply. 
Census.-The census of the Hupa taken June 30, 1905, gives the following 
Males    ------------                            --     200 
Females     -                                             212 
Males above 18-----------------------                         121 
Females above 14_                                             148 
Between 6 and 16                                             - 84 
Males, 6 to 185_                                               54 
Females, 6 to 18---------                                   -43 
In addition to the above there are about 600 Indians on the extension, and
a few hundred scattered through northern California and southern Oregon who
look to the Hoopa Agency for protection and advice in land and other matters.
Electric lights.-Economy, cleanliness, safety, and various other reasons

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