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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
(2008)

Winston, Colin M., 1955-
Carlist worker groups in Catalonia, 1900-1923,   pp. [1]-14


Page [1]

CHAPTER  1 
Carlist Worker Groups in 
Catalonia, 1900-1923 
COLIN M. WINSTON 
panish Carlism is a more varied and vital movement than often portrayed.
The pro- 
totypical Carlist, in the words of the party's chief ideologue, Juan Vazquez
de Mella, 
has been caricatured as "a kind of crow lurking in the crevices of feudal
keeps, dis- 
'--- posed to damn every scientific discovery and condemn all marvels of
industry.., a 
kind of romantic poet who, bogged down by present-day reality and a nostalgia
for the past, 
turns tearful eyes toward bygone centuries."' Nevertheless, this relic
of the past managed to 
represent the interests of a wide swath of Spanish society for over one hundred
years, nearly 
topple the liberal regime at least twice during the last century, and develop
a sophisticated 
corporatist ideology that went well beyond a call to revive medieval guilds.
Politically, the 
movement proved flexible enough to encompass throne-and-altar absolutism,
decentralized, 
quasi-constitutional monarchism and-in its most bizarre variant-"worker
managed social- 
ism" in the immediate post-Franco period. 
Even those who recognized Carlism's complexity, however, generally portray
it as an 
overwhelmingly rural movement with little appeal in urban areas. Even at
its apogee during 
the First Carlist War, the movement could not capture the main urban centers
of the Basque 
Country. Moreover, as a symbol of rural resistance to modernity, it has long
been assumed 
that Carlism had nothing to offer Spain's urban working class, that it never
faced the chal- 
lenges of industrialization and proletarian pauperization, and that it offered
workers nothing 
more than the social nostrums of Pope Leo XlII's famous encyclical, Rerum
Novarum. 
This is a false generalization. Early twentieth-century Catalan Carlism,
specifically a 
populist current born in Barcelona, recruited industrial workers, defended
their interests 
against capitalist employers, and eventually formed the kernel of a class-based,
combative 
trade union federation, the Sindicatos Libres. Worker Carlism in Barcelona
repudiated the 
paternalism of the Catholic clergy and steadfastly fought the equation of
social Catholicism 


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