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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XX: The Aiyubids,   pp. 693-714 PDF (12.8 MB)

Page 693

 During his lifetime Saladin had already distributed the provinces incorporated
in his empire to members of his own family, with virtually sovereign powers.
Three of his Sons held the chief govern ments in Egypt and Syria: al-Afdal
'Ali, the eldest, at Damascus, az-Zahir Ghäzi at Aleppo, and al-'Aziz
' Uthmän in Egypt. 1 The fourth major government, that of the Jazira
with upper Mesopota mia and Diyär-Bakr (with its capital at Maiyafariqin)
was held by his brother al-'Adil Saif-ad-Din, whose son al-Mu'azzam 'Isa
governed his second province of Kerak and Transjordan as al ' Adil's deputy.
Three lesser provinces in Syria were held by other relatives: Hamah by al-Mansür
Muhammad (son of Saladin's nephew Taqi-ad-Din), Horns by his cousin's son
al-Mujãhid Shirküh II, and Baalbek by al-Amjad Bahrãm-Shah
(son of his nephew Farrükh-Shäh).2 
 On Saladin's death (March 4, 1 1 93) the unity imposed by his personality
and authority was disrupted, and all the provinces (except that of Kerak)
became in effect separate and independent principalities. The consequence
was to endow Syria with a new kind of political structure. Outwardly it resembled
in its fragmentation 
 No detailed study of the AiyUbid period has yet been made, and many of the
principal contemporary sources are still in manuscript, particularly the
history of Ibn-Wasil of Hamah (partially reproduced in the chronicle of Abu-l-Fidã'),
the chronicle of Sibt Ibn-al-Jauzi (facsimile ed., Chicago, 1907), and that
of Kamäl-ad-Din ibn-al-'Adim of Aleppo (tr. E. Blochet, Paris, 1900).
Of less importance are the Kamil of Ibn-al-Athir (vol. XII, Leyden, 1853;
portions ed. and tr. in RHC, Or., II, I; ends in 1231), the continuation
of the Raudatain of Abu-Shamah (Cairo, 1947; portions ed. and tr. in RHC,
Or., V), and other surviving minor chronicles. Some materials from sources
no longer extant are found in later general chronicles, especially those
of adh-Dhahabi and al-Maqrizi. For general European works covering the period
see the bibliography to chapter XV. 
 1 All the Aiyubid princes were designated by an attribute following the
title al-malik, and by an honorific substantive compounded with "ad-Din",
followed by the proper name. For brevity and consistency their names will
be given as above (where al-Afdal 'Ali, for example, stands for al-malik
al-Afdal Nur-ad-Din 'Ali ibn-Yusuf), except in the few cases where the compounded
title is the more commonly used, as in the case of Saladin himself (an-Nãsir
Salah-ad-Din Yusuf ibn-Aiyub) and his brother al-'Adil Saif-ad-Din (Abu-Bakr
ibn Aiyub). 
 2 The ninth Aiyubid province in southern Arabia (Yemen) lasted only until
1229, generally under Egyptian suzerainty, but in 1232 another was set up
at Hisn Kaifã in Meso potamia, which lasted until the Ottoman conquest
of Iraq under Sulaimän the Magnificent, 

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