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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Sarabait - secondary,   pp. 21-40 PDF (19.2 MB)


Page 33


sn b                          t3
rnwlge, makes no defcable-Part of Weir Coattrmpla-
don, who wou'd take a View of Human Knowledge in
'h dwh1lc Extent of it. This feems the firfl, and mofd
fifer, asX well as natural Divifion of the Objecqs of our
Jdet.,trflndiig. For a Man can employ his Thoughts
trXnothng, but either the Contemplation of Things
'hcmf~,l5 foesr heI~ifovery of Truth; or about theThings
in. ws own Power, which arebhis Atlions, for the Attain-
nent of hits. own Ends; or the Signs the Mind makes ufe
of, both in the one and the other, and the right ordering
Of the  for its clearer Information. All which Three;
ViZ. !likngs, as they are in themselves knowable; A5tions,
as they jepend don us in order to Happinefs, and the right
ufh of Sgns, ai order to Knowledge, being toto &do,
diferent, they feem to be the Three great Provinces of
the Ittelie~ual World, wholly feparate and diffinrt one
from another.
SCIENTIFIC, fotneihing relating to the pure, fubli-
wer Sciences; or, that abounds in Science or Kn2owlege.
A Work, a Method, &c- is faid to be Scientiycal, when
g tis founded on the pure Reafon of Things, Tjc. con-
- iv&ed wholly on Principles thereof. In which Senfe, the
,Vord ftands oppofed to Nalrative, Arbitrary, 0piinion-
ativ, &c.¢
SCILLA,I Or b tuilZ, a Medicinal Plant, of the Onion-
kind, but very large ; chiefly brought from Spain: Ufed
-nly in jInfuflon and that generally in Vinegar, which
it renders Emetic. There are two Kinds, Male and
Fale ; the Male are whitifh, and the Female reddilh.
Their Infufionl *hen boiled into the Confitence of a
..rup, with Honey, called Oximnel Sylliticum in the
Shops; i   tains the  famhe Properties. They wonder-
fully deterge and fcour off the vifcid Adhefions in the
Bowels; and gently irritate the Stomach to Ejecion.
They are alfo, as all of the Onion Kind are, very Diure-
N tick, and therefore in great Eflteemnwith fome, in Dropfies;
For if their infufion be mixed with Cinnamon-Wateri
they will teldom vomit, but work downwards; and very
forcibly, by Urine: In Afthlas, and all Obftruaions,
ior Infraffions of the Lungs, which are to be removed by
pieterfives and.Epeqoration, there is fcarce any thing
.More effequal. They are alfo efleemed Wlexiztbarnicks,
tnd upon that Account have a Place in the ßleriaca
Mdromzachr.
i SCLOGRAPHY, the Profile, or Seation of a Building,
tofhew the Infide thereof. See SECTION and PROFILE.
ScioGRAPHY; in Aironomy, yc. is a Term      JI'n¢
Authors ufe for the Art of finding the Hour of the Day
or Night, by the Shadow of the Sun, Moon, Stars, WC.
See Di t.
SCIOMAIANTIA, or Scz'omanty, a kind of Divination,
atherwife called SPychomancy. Sciomancy, among the
Ancients, was the Art of raifing and calling up the
Manes or Souls of deceafed Perfons, to infirud themn in
Things to come. The Witch who conjured up the Soul
of Smuedi to foretel Saul the Event of the Battle he
was about to give, did it by Sciomancy. The Word is
frtm'd from the Greek, Bds, Shadow, ufed metaphorically
for the Soul, and ATav'rfw, Divination. See DIVINATrION.
SCIOPTRICK, a Sphere or Globe of Wood, with a
circular Hole or Perforation wherein a Lens is placed: 'Tis
fofitted, that, like the Eye of an Animal, it may be turn'd
rounA every Way; to be ufed in making Experiments of
the darken'd Roo,'. See CAMERA OBSCURA.
SCIRE-FACIASi is a judicial Writ, moft commonly
to call a Man to fhew Caufe to the Court whence it
iffues, why Execution of a Judgment paaed, Ihould not
be made out. This Writ is not granted, until a Year
and a Day be elapfed after a Judgment given: Scire-
faciaj, upon a Fine, lies not but within the fame Time
after the Fine levied, otherwife it iS the fame with the
Writof Raberefaciasfeignaw.
SCLAVONIC, the Language of the Sciavi; an An-
.ient People of Scythia Euroa   a; who, about the Year
i8, quitting their native Country, ravaged Greece, and
labli ied thie Kingdoms of Poland and Mratia, and at
hit fettled in  5Ilyria; which thence took the Name of
Vavzia. But the Modern Sciavonia is much narrower,
being only a Province in Hungary. The Schivonic is held;
Aftr the Arat the moil extenfive Ldanguage in the
Wrld: 'Tis fpoke from the Adriatic to the North Sea;
hid from the Cafpian to Savony, by a great Variety of
&ple, all, the Defcendants of the Ancient Sciavi, viz.
*  Poles, JpMiufovites, Zlgarians, Carinrbians, Bohe-
ns, Hungarians, (PrulfanSes Snualbians, fic. each of
whom, however, have their particular Diale&; only the
~4ric is the common Mother of their feveral Lan.
ACs, vit, the SPohv, Ruff/ian, Hungarian, &ec. By a
l Chronicle of the Sciai, compofed by Helmd, a
.rie ofuda, and Arn6td Abbot of Lded, and corrcdled
by i*  f klmFits¢, it a pears That the Sclavi ancientdy
nhabited the CoWd of t the .hic$Aasa,~ andt were, di&dc
L3'I
C           L aLi
into £after -iAnd Weflern: In the lAttee whjjoft, wite 4h
Rufians, Poles, Blogemians, Wc. And in the foratact,
qthe  andels. 2,Dom. maur. Orbini Rauifer  Abboti of the
Order of Malta, in an Italian Hiflory of the S&Aci4i ii-
titled, I Regno de gli Slavi, printed  ni or, wilohs
them to be originally of Bhnar in c&andinavia. Lat*.
Privera. a l) inaran, in An expretf DifboutPk  on ihe,
Origin of the fSciavi, maintains themtd to boriginally Qf
2"hrada,; and the fate with the YIfraciaxs, the PofferiiWg
of 2'liiras, Seventh Son of 7aphet. Shl~eod.  etoatpo'witz;
In a Greek, Latis:. and SCA{~iavonic  ry, printed at
Mj'co xwin 1704, obbrves, Thit t.he Word Sciava, when.
.S'clavonic is forni'd, fi ifies in their Language, Glory.
SCLEROPHTiHALMIA, a kind          of Ophthaltnia,
wherein the Eye is dry, hard, red and painful; and the
Eyebrows likewife; fo as not to be opencd after Sleep;
without great Pain, by reafon of their excefive Dryefs.
See O1P1THTALMIA.
SCLEROTICA, in Anatomy, Lec. one of the cod
Membranes of the Eye, fituate between the Adnata and
the Uvea: 'Tis very firm and opaque behind i but trivia-
rent before. In Stridnefs, 'tis only the hind-part isall'd
Sckerotica; the fore-part being properly called the Cornea,.
See CORNEA. The Sclerotica is a Segment of a larger
Sphatroid thah the Cornea.   ee-Esx. tie Word IS
forin'd from the Greek vxmiqa, hard.
SGLEROTICKS, Medicin;S- proper jo karie~       Ind
confolidate the Flefhl, ,c. of Parts they, are applied to.
'Such are Purtlain, jubarb or Houft-leek, Pfylliun, Motel
jor Garden-nighi-fhade, &c.
SCOLDING: The Punifhment allotted by our Laws
for Scolding Women, is, To be fet in a Trebuchet, conf-
monly called a CQ-cking-Stool (probably from  the Rewxhc
Coquine, ,kueani, and the German Stull, Chair) plated
over fome deep Water, into which they are to b;e let
down; and plunged thrice, under Water; to tool their
Heat and Choler.
SCOLOPOMACHAMRION, in Chirurgety, a tind of
Scalpel, thus called; by the Greeks, frorn its refetibling A
Woodcock's Bill. Its Ufe is to open, and dilate, narrow
Wounds. of the Breaaf, Abfcense, idc. Aqilapeadenie rit-
copmmtends it for Tapping in Dropfies. Tis ufually fut-
niffied with a little Button at the Point, that it may be
ufed to open Wounds of the Breaft, without Danger of
wounding the Lungs.
SCONCES are minall Forts, built fok Defenice of fome"
Pafs, River, or other Place: Soetim es they ire tade
regular of four, five; or fix Baftions; others of fimallei
Ditnenfions, fit for Paffies or Rivers, and likewife for
the Field: Such are (z.) Triangles with half BAftions,
which may be all of equal Sides, or they may be futhe-
thing unequal. However it be, divide the Sides of the
Triangle into three equal Parts, one of thefe three Parts
will fet off the Capitals and the Gorges; and the Flanks,
being at Right Angles with the Sides, make half of the
Gorge. (2) Square, with half Baflidns; whofe Sides may
be betwixt too and 200 Feet, and let one Third of, the
Side fet off the Capital and the Gorges, but the Flank
(which raife at Right Angles to the Side) mull be but pnb
half of the Gorge or Capital, that is on the Sixth Part
of the Side of the Square. (3.) Square with half Bafli-'
ons and Long. (4.) Lone Squares. (5,) Stat Redoubt of
four Points. (6.) Star kejoubt of five or fix Points.
(7.) Plain Redoubts, which are, either fitnll o'k great.
The fnmall are fit for Court of Guards in theiTrenchesg
and may be a Square of 20 Feet to 30. The midddle
Sorts of Redoubts may have their Sides from 30 td .Sd
Feet,; the great ones from' 60 to 8o Feet Square., The
Profiles (that is the Thicknefs and Height of the Bteafl-
works) to be Met on thefe feveral Works, and the Ditches,
are alterable, and uncertain; for fodietimes they ar'
ufed in Approaches, and then the Widenefs of the Breall-
worki at the Bottom, may be 7 OL 8 Feet, inwird Height
6, and outward 5 Foot ; the Ditch may be S or to'
Feet, and Sometimes I2; and for the Slopes, to be
wrought according to the Nature of the Earth, they
may fometimes be made 14 or 26 Feet wide at the Bot-
tom, and the Height of 7, 8. or 9 Feet, arnd to hive 2
or 3 Alcents to raife to the Parapet the Ditch mayo b'
i6 or 24 Feet wide, and 5 or 6 deep; and somertimes
they may come near the fmalleft fort of Ramparts, and
have a Breaif-work Cannion Proof, with a bitch of 50 or
60 Feet wide, and are thus made to fet upbn Pafaihs or
Rivers tQ endure, See REDOUBT.
SCOPER-HOLES in a Ship, are Holes made through
tie Sides clfe to the Deck, to carry off the Watek
that comes from the Pump, or any other Way. TheA
Holes in' the Covert Deck, have round Leathers nailed
over them, to keep the Sea Water from coming up. into'
the Ship, which' are called Scoper-Leatbes ; an'  thy
honr Nails,- with broad Heads, which'&fiti1 chn Laea.
trhefown, afe cilled Scoper Nail.;
'     ' ~(1 1,       ,SCR


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