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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Sarabait - secondary,   pp. 21-40 PDF (19.2 MB)


Page 27


S C A
the twb odtl Ones: This fliflaecdrawn oh
contain 3z by the Scale., Again, Were I re-
eafure any Line by a given,&,&e: Taking the
ie Line inmy Compaffes I apply ne Foot in
great Divifsvns sf the Sale, fo as the otier
over among the lefTer; then the Number of
hall Divifions intercepted between the Points
umber of Miles, &c. See the Ufe hereof
rated under the Article PLOTTING SCALE.
ia-e  -      -     DIAGONAL.
4e          , See  UGUNTER.
re- -             i -  PLOTTiNG SCALE.
SCALE, in Geography and Architeaure, a Line divided
into equal Parts, placed at the Bottom  of a Map or
Draugbts, to ferve as a common Meafure to all the Parts
of the Building, or all the Diftances and Places of the
.Map. In Maps of large Tracs, as Kinsgdoms and Pro-
*inces, Wc. the Scale ufually confides or Miles; whence
it liecomes denominated A Scale of Miles. In more par-
galar Maps, as thofe of Manors, &ec. the Scale is utually
f Chains fub-divided into Poles or Links,  The Scales
ifed in Draughts of Buildings, ufually confifd of Modules,
eket, Inches, Palms, Fathoms or the like. To find the
*  itance between two Towns, &;c. in a Map, the Inter-
valis taken in the CompafJes, and fet off in the Scale, and
the Number of Divifions it includes, gives the Diffance,
*ce MAP. To find the Height of a Story in a Defign,
thefame Method is ufed. See DESION.
A Front Scale in Perfpeciive, is a right Line in the
Draught, parallel to the Horizontal Line; divided into
equal Parts, reprefenting Feet, Inches, _'Tc. A Flying
Sale is a right Line in the Draught, tending to the Point
of View, and divided -into unequal Parts, reprefenting
Feet, Inches, U'c.
SCALENUM, or Scalenous Triangle, in Geometry, a
Triangle, whofe Sides and Angles are all unequal. See
TRIANGLE. A Cylinder, whofe Axis is inclined, is
lifo faid to be Scalenous. The Word is form'd from the
Greek axeAn, which fignifies the fame Thing;    and
which Hermol tranilates Scalarium.
SCALENUS, in Anatomy, a Name given to three
Pair of Mufcles, from their Form; all of them ferving
to draw the Ribs upwards, in conjunclion with the Serra-
ti5fupqriores po0ici, &c.
SCALENUS'primes fprings, Fleffly, from the tranfverfe
EProceffes of the Second, Third and Fourth Vertebra: of
the Neck, where defcending laterally, it is inferted into
the firfi Rib, which it helps to draw upwards.
SCALENUS SecUndusi arifes from the fame Proceffesi
as likewife from thofe of the Fifth Vertebra of the Neck ;
and is inferted into the Second Ribj and fometimes into
the Third.
SCALENUS 'ertius, arifes from the fame Procefles with
the former, and from thofe of the Sixth Vertebra of the
Neck; and is inferted into the Firit Rib.
SCALPEL, in Chirurgery, a kind of Knife chiefly
ufed in Diffedions; but which may be occafionally ufed
zn many other Operations, as in Amputations, anti to cut off
the FleIh and Membranes that are between the Two
kones of an Arm or Leg, before the Limb be fawed off;
There are two Kinds of Scalpels; ' the firfi cuts on both
Sides, and is fixed in an Ebony or Ivory Handle, which
being very flat and thin at the Extremity, ferves to part
the membranous and fibrous Parts in Anatomical Prepara-
tions. The other has a Back, Chat is, it only cuts on
one Side; 'tis crooked, and very commodious for firipping
the Flefh off the Bones in Embalming, making Skeletons,
fec. Scultetus, in his Arfenal, describes feveral other
Kinds of Scalpels; as, A deceitful Scalpel, thus called,
becaure it deceives the Patient by hiding its Blade. 'Twas
*nuch uifed by the Ancients, in opening and dilating of
Sinews ; but as 'tis apt to deceive the Chirurgeon himrelf,
and is befides very {Tow, tis better ufing a Syringotomus:
A  6Ncgpel, lharp  on both Sides for Setons. A little
Crooked Scalpel for feparating the Coherence of the Eye.
.lid.U A Iharp,  double-cutting Scalpel, with  a Bone-
Handle, for the  cutting off an A  ~gilops. Scalp els ike
'1'S*4AOmrflSQr **flM7 Scud~   -ve  th- . in n sh ir   t
isa kiind of ScalPel. See SCOtoPOMACHAIRIONS.
PiE ,  . 'ca pru ,  o   Sc lpi g-I on,   a   S urgeon's
ent ufied to raf, and fcrape foul, carious Bones.
4PTOR ANIs in Anatomy.       See LATISSIMUs
4ILLI IMPARES, in the Ancient Archite-&ure,
n- much contended about among the Criticks;
,in efe, it fignify no more than certain Benches,
or Blocks, ferving to raife the rell 4f the Mein-
an Order,. Column, Statue or the like, and pre-
eir being lol to the Eye, which mav  chance to
ed below their Level j or below the Proeaue of
Ad~~~S C :                           brA.:
g7                     SCWsvbA} H
A.itn of the ,Orniments thereoa TheIScamil4 are wvell
roprefented by the PedeflIals of Stattes-
SCAMMONY, in Pharmac~y, h      inepin tedJut  of
.,I* Root of a Plant of the fame Name, growing in the
, tI  t, particularty about Aepo iand St. yardne de
'TheJuice flows from an -ncifionh made in the Rdot * Ad
is afterwards thickened by the Sun, as 'twas pr'tended'
bq' f~bll~in reality by the Fire. The Ttee is much like An
ivy its Leavers in Form  of HIearts, its Flowers White,
and it creeps on the Ground, or mounts on other Trees,
Wa..lls, Tic. The good  genuine Scammolly of AigpLo
e                                     ti i   Qi >  f
iS toe grey, tender, triable And refinous; thwe Iai
bitter, and the Smell faintilli and didkgreeable. The
Scammany of Smyrna and that of the EaJt Indies are lefs
valued. The firfi as being more heavy, hard and black;
the latter, though light, friable, ec. is in reality only i
Compolition of common Rofin with fome other violent
Purgers.  Pomet Lhews, that both Kinds are rather
Poitons than Remedies. The true Scammovy is onet'f
the furef Purgatives; but, at the fame time, one of the
MoAi violent we have: Hence 'tis feldom 'ufed without
Correaing it by fome Preparation. From the Juice is
.drawn a Rofin of more Virtue than the Scammony itfelf.
They alfo make a Syrup of it, which is found a very
gentle Purgative. Scammony now in Uke, mutt be very
different from that of the Ancients, at leafd in the Pre-
paration; by reatbnithe Ancients gave it in much greater
DJozes: Hence Fallopius conjefures, the modern Sca-
mony to be adulterated with Spurge. Some give the
Name of American Scamzony to Afichioacam. See ME-
CHOACAM.
SCANDAL, in the Scripture Language, is any thing
that may draw us afide, or follicit us to Sin. In which
Senfe 'tis ufed indifferently with Offence, and Stumbling-
block. Scandal is either Aaive -or Paflive. An ative
Scandal is a real Induaion to Sin; a paflive Scandal is-
the Impreffion an adive Scandal makes on the Perfon in-
diced to Sin. In the popular Language, Scandal is fome
Aftion or Opinion contrary to good Manners, or to the
general Senle of a People. The Word is form'd from the
Latin, Scandalumn, which, according to Papeas, was
originally ufed for a fudden, extemporary Quarrel, qume
fubito inter aiquos Scandit ye? oritur.
S CANDAL is alfo a difadvantagious Rumor or Report;
or an A61ion whereby any one is affronted in publick.
Hence Stone of Scandal, Lapis Scandali, or ituperi a
Stone raifed in the great Portal of the Capitol in dId
Rome; wherein was Engraven the Figure of a Lion,
upon which the Ceflonary or Bankrupt being feated bare-
breech'd, cried with a loud Voice, Cedo bonis, I 1urrcnder
My Effets ; when, Squatting his Breech violently, three
Times on the Stone, he was acquitted. 'Twas called the
Stone of Scandal, becaufe thence-forward the Ceffionary
became inteffable, and incapable of giving any Evidence.
f7ulius (xeJfir introduced t Fis Form of Surrender, after
abrogating that Article of the Laws of the Twelve Tables,
which allow'd the Creditois to difmiiember their Ifolo vent
Debtors, and to take each his Member, or at lead to
make a Slave of him.
SCANDALUM       MAGNATUM, in Law, a fpecial
Name, for a Scandal or Wrong done to any high Perfon-
age of the Land, as Prelates, Dukes, Earls, Barons, Uec.
as alfo of the Chancellor, Treafurer, Clerk of the Privy
Seal, Steward of the Hou'fe, Juflice of the Bench, or
other great Officers of the Realm, by falfe News or
Meffages, whereby Debates and Difcords between them
and the Commons, or any Scandal to their Perfons, might
arife; and hath given Name to a Writ granted to recover
Damages thereupon.
SCANNING, in Poetry, the meafuring of a' Verfe,
to fee the Number of Feet and Syllables it contains, and
whether or no the Quantities, that is the Iong and fhort
Syllables, be duly obferved. The Term is chiefy ufed
with regard to Greek and Latin Verfes; the Quantities
not beinA well fettled and obferved in the Verfes ; the
Modern Languages. See QUANrTIY. Hexameters are
Scanned one Way, Jamb:c another, Saphiici 'another.
See HEXAMETER, FC. The Word is fcrmtnd from- the
Latin, Scandere, to climb.
SCANTLING, a Meafiure, Size, or Standard, where-
by the Dimenfions, &c. 'of Things are to be determinej
The Word is forned from. the Fre1c Efchoantilln, a
Pattern or Specimen. See S rANDARD.
SCAPHISM, in Antiquitya kind of Torture or Pu-
niflhment formerly in  ioe amnyg the Pa71s  It con-,-
fifled in locking the Criminal clofe up in the Trunk of
aTree bored to the Dimienfions of his Body, oil ywith
Five holes for his Head, Arms Andu Legs to come- tmbrough,
In this State he was expofedt6 tAhe Surl, and the tarts
thus appearing anointed with Honev and Mvxilk, to qnvite
theV Wafps and Flies. They forced hirl 9 eat abun3Wnt4y,'
till hii~s Ecc~iencs~, cofe pent up ina' ty Wod, tro'tefi his
 L? 9           I
IL4-
A"11 0I I


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