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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

S - Sapping,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.7 MB)


Page 20


S APD
the Pleurify withoutbleeding i and that it difdlwvt th*
Stone in the Bladder, by taking it- in Vehicles pper
for thofe Diieales. To be goo, 'tis to -be ex temely
bard and difult to pulverize.
SANGUIS-DRACGNIS, in Pharmacy. See DILA-
CONS.Bt.OOD.-
4tA N HEDRIN, or SIedrin among the Ancient ,7*s.
the Supreme Council, or Court of judicature of their
Republic i wherein wMe difparch'd all the great AffAirs
both of Religion, and' Policy. Many of the Learned
agree, That it was' infituted by Alofes, and confiued at
firit of Seventy perions, all infpired of the Holy Ghoaf,
who judged finally of all Cau1se and Affairs; and that
it fublited, without Intermiffion, from Alofes to Efdras.
Qthers,%will hat it,. That the Council of Seventy Elders,
eitablithed by .Aof s, Numb. Cap. xi. wasTemporary
and did not hold after his Death; addivg, That we
find no Sign of any iich perpetual and infallible Tribunal
throughout the whole Ol eftaient. The yezvs, how
ever, contend firenuoufly for the Antiquity of their Great
Sanhe irind M. Simon backs and defends their Proofs, and
M. le c/erc attacks them. Be the Origine and Eftablilh-
meat of the Sanhedrin how it will, 'tis certain it was fub-
fitting in the Time of our Saviour X that it was held at,7e-
rtfiew i and that the Decifion of all the moft important
Affairs belonged to it. The Prefident of this Aambly
was called Na/i: There were feveral inferior Sanhedrins
in Paleflie, all depending on the Great Sanhedrin at
jerufjalem. The inferior Sanhberins confiaed each of
Tweuity-three Perrons i and there was one in each City
and Town. Some lay, That to have a Right to hold a
Sanhedrin, 'twas requisite there were One Hundred and
Twenty Inhabitants in the Place. Where the Inhabitants
came fhort of the Numnber of One Hundred and Twenty,
they only ellablifli'd Three Judges. Into the great as,
well as the inferior Sanhedrivs were admitted Priefts
Levites, and Laymen, of all the Tribes, provided the.
were of noble Extradion, Rich, Prudent, without any
Blemifh of Body, and expert in Magick; i        laff
was efteemed a neceffary Qualification, to end1 them
to obviate and defiroy it: Very old People ax nuht
were excluded.  In each Sanhedrin there were two
Scribes i the one to write down the Suffrages of thofe
who condemned ; the other to take down the Suffrages
of thofe who acquitted.
Se/den has a very Learned Work on the Sabjecd of the
*7ewiJh Sanhedrins, de Synedriis, Printed at London in 1635,
in three Volumes kyarto. The Word is derived from the
Greek ivviuieor a Council, Affembly, or Company of Peo-
ple fitting together, from oa'v conl together, and iMpo Seat,
of Ale, I place.
SANIES in Medicine, a thin, ferous Matter, iffuing
out of Wounds and Ulcers. Galen compares it to Whey.
It differs from Put, which is thicker and whiter: The
Greeks call it i;)p crude Blood.
S \NTALUM, Santal, Sandal or Saunders, a hard,
heavy, odoriferous, medicinal Wood, brought from the
Eta.,. lvories. There are of three different Colours, Citron,
WVhite, and Red. The Trees whence they are taken are
all of the fame Kind ; and 'tis fiippofed their different
Colours only arife from the Difference of Climates where
they grow. 'Tis about the Height of the Faropeart
Walnut-tree. Its Leaves refemble thofe of the Lentisk,
its Flowers Blue, bordering on Black; its Fruit of the
fize of our Cherry, green at firfl, but blackening as it
ripens, and of a faintTatle. The Citron Santa/is efteem-
ed the bell. 'Tis brought from China, and Siam.: Is
yellow, heavy, and of a good Smell; 'tis ufed in Medi-
cine, as alfo by the Perfumers. The  hbite-Santa/ is lefi
odoriferous; 'tis brought from the fle of bAnor. The
Red-Santal has the Ileal Smell of the Three:. 'Tis brbught
from the Ifland Yama.flris, and the Coaft of Coromon
dcl. The Santals are all; held to be a little Afiringent,
to ftrengthen the Heart and Brain, and to flop Vomiting;
and are frequently ufed in Diet-drinks, and medicated
Ales, againif Scorbutick Complaints.
SAP, or Sapp; to Sap a Wall, &c. is to dig or open
a Hole in the Ground at the Foot of a Wall, Fec. to
bring it down all at once for want of Support. To
Stap ccording to Daoiler, is to undermine a Work with
H3ammers, Clubs, Pickaxes, Mattocks, &c. viz. A Bank
or Hillock, by propping it up, digging underneath it, and
then burning the Props, or Stays X or a Rock, by digging
a Mine undernieath it. To demolifh the thick, firm
Walls of old 'CaftleS $$'- SaTPPing is much the readiefd
Way. See SAPPING..
SAPHIENA, int)Anatomy, a Vein; which arifiu$ over
the Mlalechis Interes, up along the Leg, and the. inner
Part of the Thigh, difcarges it felf, near the Groin,
into the 'Crurat Vein.  is the Vein they ufually open
when they bleed in the Foot. It has its Namne, probably,
from cp-,)1 manifefus, as lying plain in Sight*
S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i
the GOrek, and Loatns; domnated from heInvnr
Saplx.J. Te Saph Verfe confis of Eleven Syjablekor Fi'
b of til We Jmmd tare 7*t"
Feet, whperefthe Firfi, Fouth, and Fifth, are Tchec
.thke Second a Sposee, nthe *kThird a Daavl, as in
X * .! nteger Fitse fcelerifq; purus.
Three Verps,04f this Kind, clofed w ith an Adoncic
Verfe, confilling of a Daeyl and Spondee, ulually make
a Sudphe. . Though we have fome Chorus's in the Anci-
ent Tragic Poets, containing a much greater Number of
Sahircks-fucceflively. They generaly run rough, unlefs
they have a Cm Lure after the diecond Foot.
SAPIEN rAL, au Epithet applied to certain Books
of Scripture, calculated for our 1ntfru&ion and Improve-
ment in Prixdenie, or Moral Wifdom; thus.scalled, in
Contra-difinan to Hflrorifal and 'Prophetical . Books.
The Sapieijral Books are 'Proverbs, Canticles, Eiclefiaftes,
c/clefirficusthe'~Pfa/ins, and 7ob- though fome reckon
this la{t among lho MHirical Books.
SAPIENTILE DENTES, Teeth, thus called becauie
they appea not till Perfonis are grown. See TEETH.
SAP 411M, or Saphir, a precious Stone of a beautiful
Azure-,.r Sky-blue Colour. The Saphir is tranfparent
W yet exceedingly hard, fo as fcarce to bear being Engraven.
Different Colours conflitute different Kinds thereof; the
deepell Blues being ePceemed Males, and the whitefs
Females. The Saphirs of ;Pegu are the moff efleem'd.
They are found in the fame Mines with the. Rubies.
There are fotne alfo brought from   the Kingdom   of
Calecut, Cananor, and Ceyloin; from which laft Place we
1hould be furnifhed with. abundance, if the King of the
Ifland did-not prohibit all Commerce thereof with Fo-
reigners. The foft WaterSa~hirs of Bohemia and Silefia
are of fome Account, though far inferior to the Oriental
ones. Many People value the &Shir beyond the Ruby
and give it the fecond Place among precious 'Stones,
giz. that next the Diamond: Others give that Place to
the Ruby.' Sompe Authors affirm, That a Sahir beinig
heated to a certain Degree, between two Crucibles luted
toether, lofes all its Colour, and becomes perfely
White.; fo As to deceive even the jewellers themfelves,
and make it pafs for a Diamond.
The Chymifcs make feveral Preparations of Safhir 5
as a Salt, a Tinaure, an Effence, a Water, an Oil, fpc.
and there are few Difeafes but they pretend, themfelves
able to cure by Remedies compofed thereof. The $S-
perilitious, attribute fIill more firange Virtues to it 3 as,
that it grows foul, and lofes its Beauty, when wore by a
Perfon that is letcherous, Ujc. The Rabbins hold, That
Mofes's Rod, and the Tables he received on Mount
Sinai, were of SasPkir. The Word is derived hence, that
in the llebrew izthe finelc Things are all called &ahirs;
whence, in Scripture, the Throne of God is faid to re-
fenable a Saphir.
Our Druggifs fell two Kinds of Saphirs ufd in the
.Confedion of Hyacinth: The one red, the other blackifh.
The laf, by reafon of the deep Tinaure they give that
Medicine, are very improperly uled there: The former
are little reddilh Stones, of the.Siz of Pins-heas, very
hard, and. difficult to pulverize.
There is >.a particular Kind of Saphir, called, by the
Latins, Oculus Feis, Cats-Eye, remarkable for g-fine Di.,
verfity of Colours as well as4 for its Hardrnefis, whichk
bears a Polilh equal with that of the true S;  r
SAPHIR-RUBI S are ceriain. precious Stones, between
blue and red, which, in effil&, are nothing but Rubies
whofe Colour i not. yet perfeWly forim'd. Se- R UB.
SAPPING, -in War, a Working under-Ground, to.gain
the Deicent iof a Ditch, Counterfcarp, ac. and. the At
tacking of a Place. 'Tis performed by digging a deep
Trench defeending by Steps from Top to Bottom, un-
der a borridor, carrying it as far -as the Bottom of the
Ditch, when that is dry,-or the Surface. of,.,the lWater
when wet. When the Cover'd-way is well defided by
Musketeers te Befiegr ike their Way down into it
by Sapiig.   When they areb got near the Foot of the
Glacis, the Trench  is carried! ondrireffly forwards; tho
Workmen covering themlas with Blinds,Wool packs,
Sand-bags, and Mantelets upon Wheels. They, alfocmake
Epauilewnint4,or Traverfoi, on -each Side .t lodge a
ro   Body of Men:t The      is mad-five orxa
M       the .Saliant Angle oft  Glacis, where the M.n
are only covere fe-ways, wheriefo. they lay  ans oer-
head with  firdles, and Earth above them. - W Aen they
have forced the Enemy to quit the Coyereway, thc
Pioneers immediately make a Lodgmrntj - a.nd cover
themfelves


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