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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

S - Sapping,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.7 MB)

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tn    SFgyt, and to the High Prieft of the
*  ~ O e i&6t, who -elided at Neapoiis. They returned
Two Anfiers to &'alige, dated in the Year 998 of the
of Malomet. Thele Atifwers never came to the
Harnds of Scalger. They are now ins the French King's Li-
*bary, and have been tranflated into Latin by Father Morin,
Piel+ of the Oratory; and printed in the Colledion of
Letters of that Father in Englan'd, t682, under the Title
of Antiqtittates Ecclerte Orientalis. M. Simon has in-
jirted a French Tranllation in the firft Edition, of Cere-
,X0oics & Couturmes des [eiifs, by Way of Supplement to
leon de Modena. In the Firit of thefe Anfwers, wrote
in the Name of the Affembly of Ifrael in ygypt, they
declare, That they celebrate the Paffover every Year,
tn the Fourteenth Day of the firml Month, on Mount
irrerizim5; and that he who then did the Office of High
.Nieff, was called Eleazar, Son of Phineas, Son of Aaron.
At prefent they have no High Prieft. In the fecond An-
Iwer, which is in the Name of the High Priefd Eleazar
*nd the Synagogue of Sicherm, they declare, That they
keep the Sabbath in all the Rigor wherewith 'tis enjoyn-
ed in the Book of Exodus; none among them fuirring out
of Doors, but to the Synagogue. Tney add, That on
bhat Night they Adod lie with their Wives i That they
l~egin.the Feaff of the Paffover, with the Sacrifice ap-
pointed for that Purpofe in EXodus; That they facrifice
to where elfe but on M~ount Gerzim; That they obferve
4e Feafts of Harveff, the Expiation, the Tabernacles,
t$. They add further, Thatthey never defer Circum-
tifion beyond the eighth Day; never marry their Nieces,
is the Yews do; have but one Wife; and, in fine, do
nothing but what is commanded in the Law: Whereas
tkhe 5ewsfrequently abandon the Law to follow the In-
ventions of their Rabbins. At the Time when they wrote
t~ Scaliger, they reckoned 122 High Priefts; affirmed
hat the 7ees had no High. Prieffs of the Race of Phi-
~eas ; and, That the Xewsbelyed them, in calling them Cu-
theans, whenas they are defcended from the Tribe of
/ofeph, by  bAreaim  The Truth is, The 7ewes impofe
abundance of Things on the Samaritans: They frequent-
l confound them wAlth the Saducees, as if they were in-
fefted with their Errors. Rabbi !enjan, who lived in
the XIrh Century, confirms the belt Part of what we
have obfervedof tne Samaritans. He obferves, They had
Priefts of the Tribe of Aaron, and wcra never married
with any but thofie of the fame Tribe: *That they ficri-
ficed on Mount Gerizim, where they had an Altar of
Stone railed by the Jfraelites after paffilrg over 7ordan.
He adds, That they are of she Tribe of Ephrain; That
they change their Habit to go to the Synagogue, and wafh
e'er they take it.
SAMARITAN Cliargfers, or Letters. See LETTER.
SAMARITAN Medals. In the Cabinets, we find fome
,fedals, utually called Samaritan .Medals. The Infcrip-
tions and Legends of theve are Hebre'w; but the Cha-
ra~er dilferenr from the Iebreal of our Bibles, which is
the fquare Ijejre- or C(1aldee; and 'tis hence, viz. frons
the Chara er, not from being firuck by the Samaritans,
that th eyare denominated Sarm2aritan. Thele Medals
have been infinitely canvafTed by the Criticks. both
*7e-wij2 and Chriflian; particularly Rabbi Ailafcher, R.
Warzencra, Rabli Azarias, Rabbi Mofes, Father Kircher,
0ikipandus   Waferus,  Conrivgims, Hottivger, Father
Morin, Walton, Ilardonin, Spanheim, &c. The learned
Jfu~it S'ouciet, in an exprefs Diflertation on the Samart-
tay Melals, rejeds alt He'rew Medals, whofe Infcripti-
otis are in Chaldee Charaders, as Ipurious; and allows
itone to be genuine but the Samaritan. Of thefe
are Fonr Kinxds. The firf bear exprefsly the Name
of 457imofl, and the Subje& for which they were ftruck,
t thje Deliverance of Terfalem. The Second Kind
ve not the Name Simon, but only the Deliverance of
iu. or '7rrufzezm. The Third Kind have neither Si-
the eliverance of Sion ; but only the Epochas,
r, fecond Year, E    The Fourth Clars have
ny Infcriptions, nor any Thing whence one may
the Time when they were flcruck. The Three
Is were certainly firuck after the Return from
yi. Captivity, and in the Tiuebof Sion= Mac-
fter  erufalem ~had .been freed fiom the Yoke of
ks. fut tho' firuck after the Captivity, Father
b(ferves, their Chara~er Ihews it felf to be that
iciernt Hebrenr, which was ufed before the Cap-
nd the U4 whereof was lo(?r by the People, du.
1rj $ojwrn in.!~xbyhn and Chaldea; but reflored
r Return, on tjbe afameFootin  as before. He
Gn A-FlK TIM;11CrIFf   amre tp= nem   lxucn as i1 W4a
before tbe 04oiritz ; Tat the Cbarater, there-
Isrt*.l6 t ietftm an&r#-ftf Sh arper4#w em o 4A the  Wf   That-
ie Cuflom to write each Language in its pro-
aaer: That if they had departed from this
S A .N
A- N
,     ;a
Rule, they had doubtlefs ulid the New thiarager ihe'
brought with them from Babylon: That there"Could be
no other Realon but that ot fetrling all Things hn the
lame Foundation they were on before the Deftruaion df
erufalem, that could have induced them to ufe thhi
Charaater on their Coins. And, lafily, That thefe Medals
were not ftruck by the Samaritans, but by the .7ews, and
in- 7erttfale. He is very full on all thee Points, and;
to the Proofs drawn from Medals, adds Two others foreign
thereto. The fir* drawn from the Relemiblance of the
Greek Letters, introduced by Ca.dmas the Pbznician, with
this Hebrew Charafter; which was the fame with that of
the Phamnicians, as the Language of thofe People was the
fame with that of the Hebre-ws. The lecond drawn fromn
feveral various Readings in the Scriptures, which cannot
be well accounted for otherwise, than by fuppofing, That
the Books wrote before the Captivity, were in the fame
Charafter with thefe Medals, and which fhew, that 'tis
the Conformity which certain Letters have in that Cha-
racter, that has deceived the Copiffs. From the whole, he
concludes, 'I'hat this Charafter of the Me'/als is the true
ancient Hebrew Character; and, That to Judge of the va-
rious Readings of the Hebrew Text, and the DifFerenceg
of the ancient Greek and Latin Tranflations, either with
themfelves, or with the Hebrew  Text, Recourfi muif
be had to this Charater.
SAMBUCUS, an ancient mufical Intirument of the
Wind Kind, and resembling a Kind of Flute; probably
thus called becaufe made of Elder, which the Latins
call Sambucus. ---   Sambucus was alfoan ancient Engine
of War, uted by Marcellus in befieging the City of SI-
racufe. 'Twas lo big, that Platarcb, in the Life of that
General, obierves, Two Ships were required to carry
SAMIAN EARTH, an Earth brought from the Ifle
of Samos, in the -.Sgean Sea. The bell is called by
Diojfcorides, Gollyrium, becaufe ufed in the Medicines of
that Name   'Tis white, very light, fhfr, friable, well-
tafled, and a little glutinous on the Tongue. There is
another Kind, harder and fouler, called Ater-Samius, in
Regard little fhining Straws are frequently found in itj
diepofed like little Stars. Each Kind is etleerned very
affringent, proper to dry, and draw Wounds.
There is alfo a Samian Stone, taken out of the Mines
in the lame Ifland. 'Tis white, and fHicks to the Tongue
when applied to it. 'Tis Affringent and cooling, an
is alfo ufed by the Goldfmiths to burnifh their Gold,
and give it a greater Luflre.
SAMOS ATNI, or Samofateniansii a Seft of ancient
Aititrinitarians, thus called from their Leaderj Paulus
Samofatenus, hilhop of Antioch, under the Emperors
Aurelian and Probus. He renewed the Herefy of 4rteemono
and had feveral Sentiments in common with Sabellius,
&c. tho' he differed from them in the Manner of ex-
plaining thein. He owned, That the Father, Son, and
Holy Ghoft were but one God, but denied that the
Son and Holy Spirit had any real Subfiflance. Accor-
ding to him, they only fubfifled in the Father, as the
Word of Man fublifis in his Underfianding. St. EpiA
pbanius will have the Samofatenians to be real 7e'ws,
without any Thing more than the Name of Chriflians *
adding, That they ufe the fame Arguments againft the
Myflery of the Trinity that the ,es do; pleading
againfl it, with them, on Pretence of maintaining the
trniy of the Godhead, tho' they don't obferve the
Ceremonies of the Law. Their Chieftain was condemned
by a Council held at Antioch, whereat aTMifled above
Seventy Bifhops; and was depofed from his Bifhoprick.
SAMPSOI, or Samjpfxians, ancient Seaaries, the fame,
according to St. Epiphaftius, with  the EtcCESAITES,
which fee. The arnpfeans were not properly either
fews, Chriflians, or Gentiles. They took their Name
from the Hebrew Semnes, Sun; as if they adored the
Sun. They acknowledged one only God; wafhed them-
felves often, and were attached, in almofl every Thingf
to the Religion of the '7ews. Many among them    ab-
ilai ned from eating of Fleh. Scaliger, after Epijhaniw4,
will have the Sampfei to be the fame with the Pfeni.
In effeflr, the E7cefaites, Sampfeans, Meaffalians, and
EJteni, appear to be no more than fo many different
Names for the fame Thing; unlefs, perhaps, the %irft
added   Something to the Opinions of the laft. See
SANIICTIFICATION,, the A&ion of Santcftingf or
making a   Thing, Holy, and] feparate to God. Sec
$AC1fRED  The reformed Divines define Sanaifatio  atd
ASt of God's Grace, wheteby a Man is renewed inwardfy,
his Defires and AfFeaions alienated fronmthe Worlds Aa
the -Man put in a Courfe of dying to Sin, and living to
Righteoufnefs. The Sangifying of the Sbboth, among
the [7e-As, is of Divine Right. By&K4irv the Sabl.
[E]                               '        b Ws

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