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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

R - Rectification,   pp. 951-966 PDF (18.2 MB)


Page 968


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-Or, fuppofe there was given any threI Nimbers or Qiand-
ties, Geometrically Proportional. as A, B, and C  and that it
were required to find a fourth, D, Proportional to them:
Since A: B:: C : D, therefore ADtzBC, and confequent-
I   D BC
y     --, that is, the fourth Term is equal to the Qyoient
of the fecond, multiplied by the third Term, divided by the
firft.~~~~~~~~~J                       eqie
Or thus, in Numbers: Suppoie given 12. 4, and 9  required
*a fourth Proportional.  Now as 12: 4:9: Q        But IX
0-=4 x 9=36. Therefore Q(:* 3. by dividing both
Sides by I2.
And hence it follows, that if any two Triangles, Paralle-
gra.ms, Prifms, Parallelopipeds, Pyramids, Cones, or Cylin-
ders, have their Bafes and Altitudes recsproea y Proportiona
thofe two Figures or Solids are equal to one another; and Sace
.erfa, if they are equal, their Bakes and Altitudes are reciprocal-
lyproportionable. See TRIANGLE, PARALLELOPIPED,
PRISM, CONE, CYLINDER, 6Fc.
RECIPRocAL Proportiou, is when in four Numbers. the fourth
isleffer than the fecond, by fo much as the third is greater than
the firfi; and evice erfa.
* This is the Foundation of the Inverfe, or indire6t Rule of
Three, thus; 4 : 10 : 8 :  : See RULE.
There is great Ufe made of this Reciprocal Proportion, by Sir
Ifaac Newton, and others, in deronofrating the Laws of Moti-
on. See PROPORTION.
RECITATION, the Ad of reciting, or delivering a Difcourfe,
either in the way of Narration, Rehearfal, Declamation, or
Reading
RECITATIVE M1uic, a Kind of Singing, that differs but
little from ordinary Pronunciation; fuch as that wherein feveral
Parts of the Liturgy are rehears'd in Cathedrals; or that wherein
the A6tors ordinarily deliver themfelves on the Theatre, at the
Opera, 6-c. See SINGING and OPERA.:
The Italians value themfelves on their Performance in the Re-
citati've Way. The Recitatives, or RecitatiVs, in our Opera's,
ufually tire the Audience, by reafon they don't underftand the
Language; the Songs make them amends. See SONG.
RECITATIVE Style, is the Way of Writing accommodated to
this Sort of Mufic. See STYLE.
RECKONING, in Navigation, the eftimating of the Quan-
tty of the Ship's Way; or of the run between one Place and an-
2her. See SAILING and DISTANCE.
This is beft perform'd by means of the Log-Line; the manner
Of applying which fee under its proper Article, LoG-LINE.
Yet is this liable to great Irregularities.-Vtruvius advifes an
Axis tobepals'd through the Sides of the Ship, with two large Heads
propending out of the Ship; wherein are to be included Wheels
touching the Water, by whofe Revolution the Space pafs'd over
in any given time, may be meafured.  The fame has been late-
ly recomnmenlded by Smlliar: But there are few who have wrote
of Navigation, but have thewn the insufficiency of this Me-
thod.
RECLAMING, or RECLAIMING, in our antient Cuffoms,
the Action of a Lord purfuing, profecuting, and recalling his
Vaffal, who had gone to live in another Place, without his Per-
miffion. See LORD and VASSAL.
RECLAIMING is alfo ufed in a fimilar Senfe, for the demand-
ing of a Perfon or thing to be delivered up, or furrender'd, to
the Prince or State it properly belongs to; when, by any irregu-
lar Means it has come into the PoflIffion of another.  gee
CLAIM.
An Officer was fent to reclaim the Veffel feiz'd by the A/ge-
rines, contrary to the Terms of the Treaty of Peace. The Mi-
'niftry reclaim'd the late Cafhier of the South-Sea Compwiy, who
had refuged bimfelf in Flanders, but in vain.
RECLAIMING, in Falconry, is the Calling of a Hawk, or Bird
of Prey back to the Fift,
The Sparrow-Hawk, Goffe-Hawk, &c. are reclaimedwith the
Voice: The Falcon only by fhaking the Lure.
So that Luring, with regard to the Falcon, is more proper than
Reclaiming. See LURE.
The Partridge is alfo faid to re/aim her Young ones, when Ihe
calls them together upon their fcattering;too much.
REKCLINATION, of a Plane in Dialling, the Number of
Degrees which a Dial-Plane leans backwards, from an exa6tly
upright or vertical Plane, i. e. from the Zenith. See PLANE.
The Recknatoio is eafily found, by means of a Ruler and a
Qyjadrant; for having drawn an Horizontal Line on the Plane,
by a Level or Quadrant, and to it another Line at Right Angles;
apply a Ruler, fo that one End of it may hang over, or reach
beyond the Plate%: Then will a Quadrant, applied to the under
Edge of the Ruler, flew the Degrees and Minutes of the Plane's
Reelinatiog; accounting from that Side of the Qiadrant that is
contiguous to the Edge of the Ruler. See DIAL, QUADRAXT,
Tic.
RECLINER, in Dialing, or RECLINING Dial, is a Dial
whofe Plane reclines from the Perpendicular; i. e. leans from you
vrlien you ftand before it. See RECLINATION.
When this Reclit~tIon is equal to the Height of theci
Dial is faid to be Eq oiiat
A Deci*xg RECLINER, or Dedinm'sg RiLkNING Di4
Dial which neither ftands perpendicularly, nor oppofite tc
of the Cardinal Points. See DECLINER.
RECLUSE, among Religious, a Perfon dofe fliut uo
very narrow Cell of a Hermitage, or other Religious i
and cur off, not only fromall Conyerfation of the World,
even of the Houfe. See HERMIT, c.
The Word is chiefly ufed for fuch as thus imprifon them
out of Devotion, to do Penance. It is fometimes alfo app]
incontinent Wives, whom their Husbands procure to le
kept in a perpetual Prifon in fome Convent.  See CoNi
6C.
Recldfes were antientlv very numerous: They were. th
kind of Solitaries who fhut themfelves up in' forme jitle -ell,
with a Vow never to ftir out of it. See SOLITARY.
None were admitted to this Oath 'till they had given fufficii
ent Proofs of their Abftinence, and had leave from the Bifhops
or the Abbot ot the Monaftery where they were thut up;
the Cells ot the Reclufes were always to join to, ome Mow.
naftery.
The Prelates Permiflion being obtain'd, they, were tried fOr i
Year in the Monaftery; out of which, during that time, they
never ftirr'd. See PROBATION.
They were then admitted to their Vow of Stability, in, the
Church before the BiWhop; which done, and the Recluf enter'd
his little Cell, the Bifhop fet his Seal on the Door.
The Cell was to be very fmall, and very exadtly clofed. See
CELL.
The Reclufe was to have every thing within it necefary to life;
and, even, if he were a Prieft,ar Oratory confecrated by the Bilhop,
with- a Window which looked into the Church, through which
he might make his Offerings at the Mafs, hear the Singing, fing
himfelf with the Communicants, and anfwer thofe who talk'd to
him. But this Window was to have Curtains before it, both
within-fide and without; fo that the Reclufe might neither fee nor
be feen.
Indeed he was allow'd a little Garden in his, Recluf/ox, to Plant
a few Herbs, and take frefh Air: Adjoining to his Cell was that
of his Difciples, which he was very rarely without, with a Win-
dow, through which they fervid him with Neceffaries, and recei-.
ved his Inifrutions.
When it was judg'd proper to have two or three Reckdfes toge-
ther, their Cells were made Contiguous to each other, with Win-
dows of Communication: If any Women would confult them,
or confefs to them, it was to be in the Church, and in the Face
of all the World.
Where there were two or three Reclufes together, they were
never to hold any Conference, but on Spiritual Matters; and to
confefs to each other: Where therewas but one, he was td cost-
fefs and examine himfelf.
If the Reclufe fell fick, his Door was opened for People to
come in and affift him; but he was not allowed to flir out on
any Pretence whatever.
There Articles are extraded from a Rule, compiled for the
Reclufes, by Grimlaic, a Prieft in the IXth Century.
There were alto Women Recldfes, who led the fame Life, in
Proportion, St. Viborarde lived a RecluJ at St. Gall, and woo
there martyriz'd by the Hungarians in 825. See RECLUSION.
RECLUSION, the State of a Reclufe; or the Cell and o-
ther Appurtenances thereof. See RECLUSE.
F. 'Hel'ot gives a particular Account of the Ceremonies pra-
diced at the Reclufon of a Woman, in that of the Mother of
Cambray, Infltitutrix of the Order of the Prefentation of Notre
Dame.
A Cell being built for her in i625, adjoining to the Church
of St. Asvdrew in Tournay: The Bithop waited for her early in
the Morning at the Church Door. Upon her Arrival, proftra-
ting her felf at the Feet of that Prelate, 'he gave her his Bene-
didion, condudted her to the Grand Altar; and, there bleffing a
Mande, Veil, and Scapulary, put them on her, and gave her a
new Name.                                         E
Having here made her Vow, and the Bifhop having harda-
gued the People in Praife of the new Reclufe; he conduded her
Proceffionally to her Reclufon, the Clergy all the way finging.
Vexi Sponfia Chrifi, &c.
Here the Bifhop bleffing her a-freffi, confecrated theReclujmio,
and 1hut her up in perpetual Confinement.
RECOGNITION, an Acknowledgement.
The Word is particularly ufed in our Law Books, for the Tilde
of the firif Chapter of the Stat. I Jacob. I. whereby the Parlia-
ment acknowledged the Crowh of England, after the Death of
Queen Efizabeth, to have rightfully defcended to $.ing
Jatmes.
RECOGNITION, in the Drama. See DIscovERY.
RECOGNITIONE adnullanda per sim n duritiem faia, is a
Writ to the Juftices of the Common-Bench, for fending a
cord touching a Recognizance, which the Recognizor fuggefts to
have been acknowledged by Force and hard dealing; that if it fo
appear it maybedifapnulled. See REcoG,=&Nc&.
RECOG:
RI tAC
kt


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