University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Moor - murrain,   pp. 580-599 PDF (18.4 MB)

Page 592

( I ~9Z%)
MotOs, I Piece of Lint, or Linhen Cloth, teaz'd like
Wool, to be put into Ulcers, to fp the Flux of Blood, Wc.
MO)TRIX, fomnething that has the Power or FIculty of
M~ovin~. See VIS MoetriX, FACuLTY, &ec.
MOTTO, an Italian Terms literally fignifying Word or
Saying 3 ufed in Arms, Devices, Wic. See AKms and DE-
The Motto of an Armour0,, is a fhort Sentence, or Diaion
carry'd in a Scroll generally over, fometimes under the
Arms; fometimes alluding to the Name of the Bearer,
Sometimes to the Bearing, and fometimes to neither.
The Motto, or Word, fays Gui/im, is an external Orna-
hnent annex'd to Coat-Armour; being the Invention or
Conceit of the Bearer, fuccindtly and fignificantly exprefs'd
ufually in three, or four Words, which are fet in fome
Scroll or Compartime~t, plac'd at the foot of the Efcut-
As the Motto holds the lowefl Place in Arms; fo it is the
lift in Blazoning. In flridnefs, it thould exprefs fome-
thing intended in the Archievement; but Cuflom has now
receiv'd whatfoever Fancy of the Devifer, See BLAZON.
The Ufe of Motto's is very antient; iHiflory, both facred
and profane, furni/hing Initances thereof. Our Ancellors
made choice of Motto's to exprefs their predominant Pafflons,
as of Piety, Love, War, Marc. or fome extraordinary Ad-
venture betallen them: Moft of which, from fome fuch
Original, have become hereditary in divers Families.
The Motto's of the Royal Family of England, are, Diets
8 mon Droit, God and my Right; of the Royal Family of
Bourbon, E'perance, Hope; of' the Order of the Garter,
Honi Joit qPi mal y penfe, Shame be to him that Evil thinks;
of the Duke of Norfolk, Sola Virtus inviga; of the Duke
of 3edford, Cbe fara Jara; of the Duke of Devon~/ire, Ca-
vendo tutus, alluding to the Family's Name Cavend#.,; of
the Duke of King/ion, Pie repone te, alluding to the Name
Piere point; of the Earl of Radnor, Quwefupra, alluding to
the three Stars in his Armss; of the Earl of Abingdon, Virtus
arietefortior, alluding to the three battering Rams bore in
the Arms; of .Frrefrne Lord Clinton, Forte fcutum falus Du-
The Motto Of a Device, is alfo call'd the Soul of the Device.
MOVEABLE, fomething fJufceptible of Motion; or
that is difpos'd to be mov'd. See MOTION.
Thus a Sphere is faid to be the mold moveable of all Bo-
dies, i.e. the cafiefl to move. A Door is moveable on its
H1inges: The Magnetical Needle, on a Pin, or Pivot,
Moveable is frequently ufed in Contradiffinklion to Fixed.
MOVEABLE Feafis, are fuch as are not always held on
the fame Day of the Year, or Month i tho they be, on the
fame Day of the Week. See FE.iST.
Thus, Esafter is a snoveable Featl; being always held on
the firfi Sunday after the full Moon following the 2.tft of
2Varcb; which is moveable between the ilt of March, and
the i8th of April. See EASTEIA.
All the other moveable Feafis follow Eafler, i. e. keep
their Diflance from it; fo that they are fix'd with refpeA
Such are Septuagefima, Sexagefima, A]L&Wednefday, Afcen-
fion-Day, Pentecoft, Trinity-Sunday, Fic. Which fee under
their proper Articles.
MOVEABLES, or MOVF.ABLE Goods, by the Civilians
call'd Bana MOBILI A, are fuch as are capable of being
remov'd from one Place to another; or which may be con-
ceal'd or perverted; as not being fix'd to the Ground, F)c.
In England, we have two Kinds of Effe&s, Moveable and
Immovealble; the Moveable arc Ready Money, Merchandizes,
Bonds, Book-Debts, Cattel, Houfhold Infiruments, ~ct
that are not faflen'd either with Iron or Nail, nor feal'd in
the Plaifler, but may be tranfported without either Frac-
tion or Deterioration.
In the Cuilomary Laws, we fay Moveables follow the Per,
fon, and his proper Habitation; hMoveables follow the Body
Lc. which Words have different Meanings in different
Sometimes they fignify, that Moveables go according to thi
Cuflom of the Place where is the Habitation of the De
ceas'd, tho he die in another Place; Sometimes they fignif)
that Moveables follow the Cuflom of the Place where th
Defunct died.
MOVEMENT, Motion, a Term frequently ufed in th
fame Senfe with Automnaton.
The moil ufual Movements are Watches and Clocks. Th
firfi are fuch 'as fhew the Parts of Time i the fecond fuc
as publifh it  See WATCHI and CLOCK.
In its popular Ufe, iamong us, Movement fignifies all tl
curious Parts of a Watch, Clock, or other curious Engine
which move, and, by that Motion, carry on, the Defign i
the Infirument.
The Mooeme'tA ot a Clock, or Watch, is the Infide;> ot
that Part which meafures the Time, firikes, &ic. exclufive
of the Frame, Cafe, Dial-Plate, &ic.
The Parts common to both of thefe Movements are,
The Main-Spring, with its Appurtenances; lying in the
Spring-Box, and in the middle thereof lapping about the
Spring-Arbor, to which one end of it is farien'd. At top
of the Spring-Arbor is the Endlefs Screw, and its Wheel;
but in Spring-Clocks, this is a Ratchet-Whcel with its
Click, that ftops it. That which the main Spring draws,
and round which the Chain or String is wrapped, is the
Flry   This is ordinarily taper; in large Works going with
Weights, it is cylindrical, and call'd the Barrel. The fmall
Teeth at the bottom of the Fufy or Barrel, which flop it
in winding up, is call'd the Ratchet; and that which flops
it when wound up, and is for that end driven up by the
Spring, the Garde-gur. The Wheels are various ; the Party
of a Wheel, are the Hoop or Rim; the Teeth, the Crof , and
the. Collet or Piece of Brafs folder'd on the Arbor or
Spindle, whereon the Wheel is rivetted. The little Wheels
playing in the Teeth of the larger, are calld Pinions i and
their Teeth, which are 4, 5,6, 8, Wc. are call'd Leves; the
Ends of the Spindle are call'd Pivots; and the -gutter'dWheel,
with Iron Spikes at bottom, wherein the Line of ordinary
Clocks runs, the Pully. We need not fay any thing of the
Hand, Screws, Wedges, Stopf, Lec. See WHEEL, PIVOT, C.
Theory of Calculatitg the Numbers for MOVEMENTS.
*Ii It is to be obferv'd, that a Wheel divided by its Pi-
nion, lhews how many Turns the Pinion has to one Turn of
the Wheel.
2. That from  the Fufy to the Balance, the Wheels
drive the Pinions; confequently the Pinions run fafler, or
make more Revolutions than the Wheels: but 'tis the
contrary from the great Wheel to the Dial-Wheel.
3. That the Wheels and Pinions we write down either as
Vulgar Fradions, or in the way of Divifion in the com-
mon Arithmetic v.g. a Wheel of 6o moving a Pinion-of
5, is wrote either as, or better 5)6o. And the number of
Turns the Pinion has in one Turn of the Wheel,
as a Quotient, thus, 5)6c(t2. A whole Move- 4)36(9
ment -may be wrote, as in the adjoining Scheme; -
where the uppermofi Number expreffes the Pi- 5)5 5(1
nion of Report ., the Dial-Wheel 36, and the  5-)45(9
Turns of the Pin 9; the fecond, the Pinion, and  5)40(8
Great-Wheel ; the third, the fecond Wheel,
Lc. the fourth, the Contrat Wheel; and the
laft, I7, the Crown-Wheel.
Hence, 4. From the Number of Turns any Pinion makes
in one Turn of the Wheel it works in, may be jdetermin'd
the Number of Turns a Wheel or Pinion has at any greater
Dilance, viz by multiplying together the Quotients; the
Produce whereof is the Number of Turns. Thus,
Suppofe the Wheels and Pinions as in the Cafe  5)55(I1
adjoining; iI multiply'd by 9, gives 99, the  )45(9
Number of Turns of the fecond Pinion 5, in one 5)4.0(8
Turn of the Wheel 55, which runs concentrical,
or on the fame Spindle with the Pinion 5. Again, 99 mul-
tiply'd by 8, gives 792, the Number of Turns the laft
Pinion has in one Turn of the firfl Wheel 5.
Hence we proceed to find, not only the Turns, but the
Number of Beats of the Balance in the Time of thofe
Turns. For having found the Number of Turns the
Crown-Wheel has in one Turn of the Wheel fought, thofe
Turns multiply'd by its Notches, give half the Number
- of Beats, in that one Turn of the Wheel. Suppofe, v. g.
as in the lafi Cafe, the Crown-Wheel to have 7 zo Turns,
Ito i of the firft Wheel; this Number mnultiply'd by I5,
the Notches in the Crown-Wheel, produces ro8oo; half
the Number of Strokes of the Balance in one Turn of
Ithe firft Wheel.
:   The general Divifion of a Movement, is into the Clock
and Watch-Parts. See CLOCK-Worh and WATCH-Work.
M- OVER, orfigf MOVER. See MOBILE.
Perpetual MOVER. See PERPETUAL Motion.
t   MOULD, in the Mechanic Arts, We. a Cavity artfully
cut, with defign to give its Form, or Impreffion to fome
e fofier Matter apply'd therein.
- * Moulds are In{riruments of great Ufe in Sculpture, Foun-
e The Workmen employ'd in melting the Mineral or
Metallic Glebe dug out of Mines, have each theirfeveral
e Mould, to receive the melted Metal as it comest out of the
Furnace; but different according to the diverfity of Metals
e and Works. In Gold-Mines,- they have Moulds for Ingots.
Ih In Silver-Mines for Bars. ' In, Copper and Leid-Mines for
Pigs or Salmons: In TinJMines for Pigs and Ingots:
he And in Iron-Mines for Sows, Chimney'Backs, Anvils, Cal-
e, drons, Pots, and other large Urenfils atnd MerchandifesQf
of Iron, which are heremcaff, as it were, at firfl hand. Sea

Go up to Top of Page