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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Meatus - metal,   pp. 521-541 PDF (20.3 MB)


Page 533


tI ?4)
is, they don't lofe it, but only ceafe tod enjoy the Pri-
vileges of their Nobleife while their Commerce conri-
nues, and reaffume it, by giving over Trade, without any
Letters or Infirument of Re-Hsabilitation. In Republics it
is till more valued: but no where more than in England,
where the younger Sons and Brothers of Peers are frr-
quently bred up to Merchandize. Add to this, that many
of the Italian Princes are the principal Merchants of their
States ; and think it no discredit to make their Palaces
ferve as Warehoufes: And that manv of the Kings of
.Afia, moft of thofe of the Coalf of Jfrica and Guinea,
trraick with the Europeans, Sometimes by their Mini-
itLrs, and fometimes in Perfoon
The Quallfications requifite for the Profefflon of a
Merchant, are, I. To keep Books, tingle or double, viz.
Journals, Ledgers, and others;  . 'o 0 draw  Invoices,
Contra&&, Charter-Parties, Policies of Affurance, Bills of
Exchange, Letters Miffive, ec. s. To know the Rela-
tiun between the Monies, Weights, and Meafures of fe-
veral Countries. 4. The Places where the feveral Kinds
of Merchandizes are manufadured, in what manner made,
what the Materials comnpofed of, and whence; the Pre-
paration the Materials require before they are wrought;
and the Merchandizes afterwards. 4. The Lengths and
Breadths of Stuffs, as Silks, Wools, Hairs, Linens, Zic..
the Regulations of the Place where they are manufactured,
and their different Prices at different Seafons. 5. The
Vying, and the Ingredients for the Formation of the
different Colours. 6. The Merchandizes that abound, or
are more rare in one Country than another; their Kinds
and Qualiries; and the manner of Trafficking themi to
the bett Advantage, whether by Land, by Sea, or Rivers.
a. The Commodities permitted or prohibited, both for
the Import and Export of a State. 8. The Price of Ex-
change according to the Courfe of feveral Places, and
what it is that raifes or lowers it. y. The Duties to be paid
both at the Import and Export of Wares, according to the
Ufe of the Places, the Tarifs, Regulations, Uec. Ij. The
manner of Packing, Baling, and Tunning Merchandizes, to
keep them either in Magazines, or in Voyages, Cic. I.
On what Terms a Merchant-Veffel may be Freighted, and
A4Tured. i2. The Goodnefs and Value of every thing
requifite for the Confirudion or Refitting of VelTels, the
Prices of Woods, Cordage, Mafls, Anchors, Sails, and
other Equipage. I-. The Wages ordinarily given Cap-
tains, Officers, and Sailors : and the manner of con trac-
ting with them. 14. The foreign Languages, which may
be reduced to three principal ones, viz. the Spani/j, ufed
almofi through all the Eajt, particularly on the Coaft of
Africa, from the Canaries to the Cape of Good Hope; the
Italian, ufed throughout the Coafis of the Mediterranean,
and many Places of the Levant; and the Teutonic or Ger-
man, ufed throughout moft Countries of the Nortb. Laftly,
the Confular Jurifprudence, the Laws, Cuffoms, Compa-
nies, Colonies, Chambers of Alfurances, Confulates in
the feveral Countries ; and in the general, all the Ordon-
nances, Regulations, and Policies, relating to Commerce.
MERCHANT, a Perfon whocarries on Mercbandize,
or fullains the Mercantile Profeflion. See MERCHAN-
Dl ZE.
MERCHANT-Man. SeeSHiP, VESSEL, CAPTAIN, SC.
MERCItANT-Taylors CompanQ   See   COMPANY.
MERCHAN T-Taylors School  5       SCIOOL.
MERCHIANLAGE, fee LAW.
MERCATOR's Cbart,or Preoegion,is a Sea Chart,where-
in the Parallels are reprefented by firait Lines; and the
Meridians, likewife, by parallel firait Lines, whofe De-
grees, however, are not equal, but are continually en-
larged as they approach nearer the Pole, in the fame Pro-
portion as the parallel Circles decreafe towards them. See
1ROJECTION.
For the ConfIrudion, Ufe, Advantages, &èc. hereof, fee
Mercator's Cr. AR T.
MERCATOR'S Sailing, is that performed by means of
Mercator's Charts. See Mercator's S A I L I N G.
MERCURY, I, in Afironomy, the fmallefl of the in-
ferior Planets, and the nearelt the Sun. See PLANET
and SYSTEM.
The mean Diilance of this Planet from the Sun is to that
of our Earth from the Sun as 387 to toac; its Excentricity
8 Degrees: The Inclination of its Orbit, that is, the
Angle formed by the Plane of its Orbit with the Plane of
the Ecliptic, is 6 Degrees 5z Minutes: Its Diameter to
thatof the Earth as 3 to 4; and therefore the Globe of
Mercairy will be to that of the Earth us 2 to S. See EXCEN-
TR C TYlNCLINATIONDIAMETER, DISTANCE, ,C.
According to Sir If. Newton, the Heat and Light of the
Sun on the Surface of Mercitry is feven times as intenfe as
on the Surface of our Earth in the middle of Summer :
which, as he found by Experiments made for that pur-
pofe by a Thermometer, is fufficient to make Water boil.
Such a degree of Heat therefore muai render Mercury un-
~MER
inhabitable to Creatures of our Conflitution  Antd I
Bodies on its Surface be not inflamed and fet oil fire, it
mull be becaufe their Degreeof Denfity is proportionably
greater than that of fuch Bodies with us. see HEAT..
The Revolution of Mercury round the Sun, or his Year;
is performed in 87 Days; 23 Hours; his diurnal Revolui..
tion, or the Length of his Day, is not yet determined 5
nor is it certain whether he has fuch a Motion round hid
own Axis, or not. See PERlop., REVOLUTION, L5c.
What variety of Weather or Seafons it may be liable
to, we are flill at a lofs; as not knowing the Inclination
of his Axis to the Plane of his Orbit.  The Furce of Gra-
vity on the Surface of Mercury, is feven times as fprong ad
on the Surface of the Earth. Its Denfity, and, confe-
quenrly, the Gravitation of Bodies towards the Centre,
cannot be accurately determined  but no doubt it mufl
exceed that of our Earth, by reafon of the Excefs of
Heat there. See GRAVITY, DENSITY, SC.
Mercury changes its Phafes, like the Moon, according to
its feveral Pofitions with regard to the Sun and Earth;
See MooN.
It appears full, in its fuperior Conjunc7 ons with the
Sun, becaufe we can fee the whole illumined Hemi-
fphere: But in its lower Conjundion, we only fee the
obfcure, or unillumined Hemifphere: In his Approach
toward the Sun, his Light is falcated or horned. See
PHASES.
The Situation of this Planet proves evidently, that the
Hypothefis of Ptolemy is falfe;: For Mercury is fome-
times obferved betwixt the Earth and Sun; and fome-
times beyond the Sun. But the Earth is never found be-
tween Mercury and the Sun ; which however mutt happen;
if the Spheres of all the Planets incompafs'd the Earthj
as a Centre, according to the Ptolemaic Scheme. See
PTOLEMAIC Syftem.
The Diameter of the Sun view'd from Mercury, would.
appear three times as big as it appears on our Earth;
that Planet being thrice as near himt as we are 7; and there-
fore the San's Disk would appear feven times as large as
it appears to us.
Its greaten Diflance from the Sun, with regard to us,
never exceeds z8 Degrees, whence 'tis feldom vifible,
being commonly either loll in the Sun's Light, or, when
the molt remote from the Sun, in the Crepufculum. The
bedi Obfervationsof this Planet, are thofe made when it is
feen on the Sun's Disk; for in its lower Conjun6tion, it
paTes before the Sun like a little Spot, eclipfing a fmall
part of his Body, only observable with a Telefcope. The
firil Obfervation of this kind, was that of Ga/fendi in
632. See TRANSIT.
To an Inhabitant of Mercury, the folar Spots will ap-
pear to traverfe his Disk fometimes in a right Line from
Ea{} to Wef{, and Sometimes Elliptically. As the other
five Planets are above Merciry, their Phxnomena will be
nearly the fame there, as with us. Venus and the Earth,
when in oppofition to the Sun, will lhine with full Orbs,
and afford a noble Light to that Planet.
MERCURY, in Natural Hiflory, a fluid, mineral Matter,
perfedly refembling Silver in fufion. See MINERAL.
Afercury is known under a great number of Names:
The common Name among the Antients was Hydrarayrum,
q. d. Water of Silver. The Moderns commonly call it
Mercury, from fome fuppofed Relation it bears to the Pla-
net of that Name, In EnglJ it is popularly call'd Quick-
Silver, from its Appearance. Many of the Chymifis call it
Proteus, from the variety of Forms, Colours, Lec. it paffes
thro' in their Preparations.
Naturaliffs are divided what Clafs of Foffils to range
Mercury under: Some   make it a Metali others a Semi-
metal; and others an imperfed Metal. See FOSSIL and
SEMI-METAL.
Booerhaave obferves, that it is very improperly call'd a
Metal, inafmuch as it has not all the' Characders of fuch a
Body   ; nor fcarce any thing in common with the other
Metals, except Weight and Similarity of Parts: Thus,
for Example, it is neither diffolvable by Fire, malleable,
nor fix'd: In effea, it feems   to conflitute a peculiat
Clafs of Foffils: and is rather the Mother, or Bafis of alt
Metals, than a Metal itfelf See METAL.
Perfect Metals, according to M. -omberg, &c. are no-
thing but pure Mercury, whofe ittle Particles are penetra-
ted on all fides, and fill'd with the Matter of Light, which
unites and binds them together into a Mafs, fo that the
Parts of fluid Mercury, which are fuppofed to be little folid
Globes, in their Metallification are render'd rough and un-
even, being pireced on all fides, and having their Pores or
Perforations fill'd with the Matterof Light. By fuch means
they lofe their firfi Confirmation, and the Politure or
Smoothnefs of their Surfaces, which is oneof the principal
Caufes of the fluidity of Mercury.
The Chymifis make Mercury one of their Hlypoflatical
Principles : Not, as M. Homberg obferves, that it anfwers
Uuuuu                         the
MAER


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