University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Meatus - Metal,   pp. 521-541 PDF (20.3 MB)

Page 525

( 5z5)
incliffcretit1v increafe the Quantity of every Secretion.
Mercury would as conflantly purge as falivate, and Nitre
promote Perfpiration, as well as Urine X but this is repug-
nant to Experience. If they have a power to diffolve
certain Cohetions, v and iot others 5 this is but fetting cer-
tain Particles at liberty to pafs thro' their proper Glands,
which were not fo before Ad andl is a preparing the Hu-
mours, in order to increafe the Quantity of Secretion.
Evacuating Medicines muft therefore have a power to if-
fec forne Particlec, and not others; that is, to repel fome,
and attraa, retain, and alter others: and this is what may
be affirm'd to be in all Medicines, and is what a thoufand
Chy mical Experiments demonfirate.The feveral Humours
then being form'd, lby the different Cohefion of the Par-
tides of Blood, the Quantity of Humour fecerned by any
Gland, muti be in a Proportion compounded of the Pro-
portion, that the Number of the Particles, cohering in
luch a manner as is proper to conftitute the Humour
which paffhs thro' the Gland, bears to the Mafs of Blood;
and of the Proportion of the Quantity of Blood, that ar-
rives at the Gland. And hence it follows, that where
there is a determinate Quantity of a certain Humour to
be fep'arated, the Number of Particles, that are proper to
compofe the fecerned Liquor, muft be reciprocally pro-
portional to the Quantity of  the Blood that arrives at the
Gland: and therefore, if the Quantity of the Secretion
is to he increas'd, the Number of Particles is to be in-
cras'd i if the Secretion is to be letfen'd, the Number
of Particles, proper for fuch a Secretion, is to be leffen'd
in the fame Proportion. Medicines, therefore, which can
alter the Cohefions, and Combinations of the Particles, can
either increafe or diminilh the Quantity of any Secretion.
Thus, fuppofe the Hurnour, which pafes thro' the Glands
of the Inteffines, to be compofed of three or four feveral
forts of Particles; that Medicine, which will eafily cohere
to thofe Particles, and cohering, increafe their mutual At-
tradlions, fo as they unite in gteater Numbers at, or be-
fiore they arrive at the Intreines, than they would have
done; if the Medicine had not been given, mumu necefiarily
increafe the Quantity of Hutnour, which paffies thro' the
Glands of the Inteflines, if the Quantity of Blood which
arrives at the Glands, is not diminifl'd in the fame Pro-
portion, as the Number of Particles is increas'd. After
the fame manner do Diuretics, Sudorifics, and Medicines,
which promote all other Secretions, operate.
Why increafing the Quantity of fome Secretions, fhould
diminifh thit of others, is not eafy to explain on any other
foot: for if the Blood be equally mix'd in every part of
-the Body, with all the Humours which are feparated from
iti that is, if the Mixture of the Blood is every where
alike, fo that every Humour bears the fame Proportion
to the refe of the Arterial Blood, in one part of the Body,
that it does in another; and if every Humour has its
own proper Gland, thro' which it is feparated: then what
is feparated by one Gland, is not fubifiracled from ano-
therr and conecjuently d ot not diminifh the Quantity of
Humour, which flows to this other, but doth indeed rather
increafe the Quantity of this other Secretion: for the more
any one Hiumour is carry'd ofF, the greater Proportion any
other remaining in the Blood, bears to the remaining Blood:
And therefore the more any one Secretion is increa fed, the
more all the reff fhould be increafed likewife. But if all
the Humours are compofed by a Combination of a few
different forts of Particles, then the more apt thefe Par-
ticles are to run into any one fort of Combination, the lefs
all other Combinations mull be: and confequently the in-
creating any onn Secretion, muff neceffaariy diminihh the
Quantity of all others; but oofi efpecially of that, which
has the moil of the fame fort of Par'ticles. See SECRE-
MEDICINAL Hours, are thofe proper to take Medi-
cines in: Of which there are four in the Day, viz. in the
Morning fatling, about an Hour before Dinner, about four
Hours after Dinner, and going to Bed; but in acute Cafes,
she Times are to be govern'd by the Symptoms and Ag-
gravation of the Diflenper.
MEDIETAS Linguu, an Inquefl impannel'd, whereof
the one half confifis of Natives or Denizens, the other
Strangers.  It is ufed in Pleas, wherein the one Party is a
Stranger, and the other a Denizen. Solomon deStanford, a
3'ew, in the Time of Edward I. had a Caufe tried before
the SherifF of Norwich, by a jury of fex probos e legales
Homines, L fex legales iudeos de Civ'itate Norvici.  See
MEDITATION, an A&ion by which we confider any
thing clofely, or wherein the Soul is employ'd in the
Search of any Truth. In Religion it is ufed to fignify
a Confideration of the Myfieries and grand Trrtth of
Faith. l} he lvlics mmake a great difference between Me-
ditatios2 and Contemplation. Meditation confifls in difcur-
five A ffs of the Soul, confidering methodically, and with
.   t. a=  D
attention, the Myfleries of Faith, and the Precepts of
Morality: And is perform'd by Refledlions and R1eafon-
ings, which leave behind then nianifef Irmpreffions in the
Brain. t The pure Contem plative have no need of Madita-
tion, as feeing all things in God at a Glance, and without
any Refledion. *When a Man therefore has once quitted
Meditation and -is arrived at Contemplation, he returns
no more; and, according to Alvarez, never refumes the
Oar of Meditation, except when the Wind of Contem-
plation is too weak to fill his Sails. See CONTEMPLA-
MEDITERRANEAN,          foniething  inclofed  within
Land. The W ord is particularly ufed to fignify that large
Sea, which flows within the Lands of Europe and Africa,
by the S;reights of Gibraltar; and reaches into Aia, as far
as the Euxine Sea, and the Pal/s Meoris. It was antiently
call'd the Grecian Sea, and the Great Sea. It is now can-
ton'd out into feveral Divifions, which bear feveral Names;
To the Weft of Italy it is call'd the Liguflic, or Tufca4
Sea i  near Venice, the Adriatic;  towards Greece; Ionic and
:Agean; between the Helkefpont and the Blofpborus, the
White Sea, as being very fafe; and beyond, the Black Sea;
its Navigation being dangerous. The Arabs call the Medi-
terranean Sea, the Chamber-Potj by reafonj they fay, of its
MEDITULLIUM, is that fpongy Subflance between
the two Plates of the Cranium, and in the Inrerflices of
all laminated Bodies. See CRANIUM.
MEDIUM, a Latin Term, fignifying Middle or Mean.
M EDIUM, in Logic, or MED  Ium  of a Syflogifm, call'd
alfo   the m ean or m iddle Term, and by the Italians, mezzo
termino; is a n Argum ent, Reafon, or Confideration, for
which we affirm, or deny any thing : Or It is that Caufej
why the greater Extreme is attributed to, or deny'd of
the Iefs, in the Conclufion. Thus, in the Syllogifm, ' E-
'    verv good thing is to be defired; but all Virtue is
' good; therefore all Virtue is to be defired :' The
Term Good is the Medium; Vittue the lefs Extreme, and
to be defir'd the greater. See SYLLOGISM, EXTREME,
'Tis call'd Medium, as being a kind of Mediator between
the Subjedt and Predicate; or, by reafon, the Extremes
are difpofed to affirm, or deny by means hereof. Some
call it Argumentumj tertium, a third Argument, and others
limply Atumen rum, as being the Caufe why we affent to
the Conclufion. e   See ARGUMENT.
Mediums, or Media, are the Things principally fought
for, in difcourfing ; fo that the invention of Mediums
makes the mod effential Part of Logic. But the Rules
commonly given by Logicians for that purpofe, are mere
Impertinencies. In effe&c, no fuch Rules can be given:
Nor have we any way of coming at fuch Mediums or
Reafons, but by a clofe Attention ro clear Ideas; See
MEDIIUM, in Arithmetic, or an Arithmetical Medium or
Means call'd in the Schools Medium Rei, is that which is
equally diflant from each Extreme; or, which exceeds the
leifr Extreme, as much as it is exceeded by the greater;
in refpeat of Quantity, not of Proportion. Thus, Nine is a
Medium between Six and Twelve. See rArihmetical PRO-
Geometrial MEDIUM or Mean, call'd in the Schools
Medium Perfona?, is that where the fame Ratio is prefetv'd
between the firil and fecond, and the fecond and third
Terms; or that which exceeds in the fame Ratio, or
Quota of itfelf, as it is exceeded. Thus Six is a geome-
trical Medium between Four and Nine. See Geometrical
This is the Medium which Virtue is Cuppos'd to obferve;
whence Come call it Medium quoad nos, as having a View
to Circumf'ances, Times, P P aces, Perfons, &Zc. Diflribu-
tive juflice obferves a Geometrical Medium;5 Commutative
Juflice, an Arithmetical one. See JUsTicE.
The Schoolmen diffinguifh divers other Kinds of ME-
DIUMs; as
MEDIUM    Partinchpationis, in theSchools, isthat faid to
be compounded of the two Extremes:  Thur, Man, who
is partly Body, partly Mind, is a Medium by Participa-
tion, of the two Extremes; fo, is Warmth the Medium of
Heat and Cold, F-;c.
ME I #M Negationis or Remotion;!, is that, whereof both
Extremes are deriv'd ; or, it is a Subjea, capable of re-
ceiving both Extremes, and yet not necerfarily poffefs'd
of either. In which latter fenfe, the Will is a Mean with
refpe~L to Virtue and Vice; and the Underflndings with
refpe& to Knowledge and Ignorance.
MMDDIu      quod, or MDUM Sru uppofizti, is foawhat be-
tween the Agent and Patient, which receives the Aa1ion
of the one, e'er it arrive at the other. In this fenfe, Air
is a Medium between the Fire, and the Hand heated
there by ._M ED l   u M   quo, is theForm, or Faculty,
S    f fff              whereby

Go up to Top of Page