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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 479

MAC                        (47.
of fomne Divinity; but the Occafion of Machines, in the
one and the other, being fomewhat different, the Rules
and Laws of managing them are different likewife.
The antient Dramatic Poets never brought any Machine
on the Stage, but where there was an abfolute N eceffity
for the Prefence of a God; and were generally laughed
at for fuffering thermfelves to be reduced to fuch a Ne.
ceffity. Accordingly Ariflotle lays it down as an exprefs
Law, that the unravelling of the Piece Should arife
from the Fable itfelf; and not from any foreign Machine,
as in the Medea.  Horace is fomething lefs fevere ; and
contents himfelf with faying, that the Gods Thould ne-
ver appear, unlefs the Nodus, or Knot, were worthy of
their Prefence ; Nec D)eps interfit, nJi dignus Vindice No-
dus,-inciderit.  But 'tis quite otherwife in the Epopea;
there mull be Machines every where, and in every Part.
.Homner and Virgil do nothing without them. Petronius,
with his ufual Fire, 'maintains, that the Poets Thould
deal more with the Gods than with Men ; that he 1hould
every where leave Marks of his prophetic Raptures, and
of the Divine Fury that polfeffes him i that his Thoughts
beall full of Fables,that is, of Allegories and Figures:
In fine, he will have a Poem dillinguilhed from an Hi-
flory in all its Parts; not fo much by the Verfes, as by
that Poetical Fury which exprelfes Itfelf wholly by Al-
legories; and does nothing but by Machines, or the Mi-
nifiry of the Gods. A Poet therefore mull leave it to
the Hillorians to fay, that a Fleet was difperfed by a
Storm, and driven to foreign Shores; and mull himfelf
fay with Virgil, 'that 1uno went to feek ,olus, and that
this God, at her Requefi, turned the Winds loofe a-
gainft the Trojans.  He mull leave the Hiflorian to
write, that a young Prince behaved himfelf with a
great dealof Prudence and Difcretion on all Occafions ;
and mull fay with Homer, that Minerva led him as it
were by the hand in all his Enterprizes.  Let an Hiuo-
rian fay, that 4gamemnon, quarrelling with Acbilles, has a
mind to Ihew him, tho' miflakingly, that he can take
Troy without his Affillance. The Poet mull fay that The-
tis, piqued at the Affront her Son had received, flies up
to Heaven to demand Vengeance of Jupiter 3 and that
this God, to fatisfy her, fends the God Somnus, or Sleep,
to Agamemnon, to deceive him, and make him believe
that he Ihall take Troy that day.  'Tis thus that the
Epic Poets ufed Machines ;n all Parts of their Works ;
In the Iliad, Ody/fee, and Anei', the Propofition men-
tions them'; the Invocation is addreffed to them i and
the Narration is full of them: they are the Caufes of
Aaions 3 they make the Knots, and at lall they unravel
them. This lafd Circumfiance is what Ariflotle forbids
in the Drama; but 'tis what Homer and Virgil have both
praaifed in the fEpopea. Thus Minerva fights for Utllves
again1f Penelope's Lovers, helps him to defiroy them X
and the next Day herfelf, makes the Peace between
jLJvfes and the Itbacans, which clofes the Odyfee.
further, the Ufe of Machines, in the Epic Poem, is,
on fome Accounts, entirely oppofite to what Horace pre-
fcribes for the Theatre. In Tragedy that Critic will ne-
ver have them us'd without an abfolute Neceffity i
whereas in the Epopea they fhould never be ufed but
where they may be well let alone ; and where the Ac-
tion appears as if it did not neceffarily require them.
How many Gods and Machines does Virgil implore to
raife the Storm that drives Alneas into Carthage ? which
yet might eafily have happened in the ordinary Courfe
of Nature. Mvlaclines, in the Epic Poem, therefore are
not Contrivances of the Poet, to recover himfelf afier
he has made a falfe Step; nor to folve any Difficulty pro-
per to fome Parts of the Poem: but 'tis the Prefence of
a Divinity, and fome Supernatural and extraordinary Ac.
tion which the Poet inferts in moll of the Incidents of
his Work, to render it more majeflick and admirable;
and to train his Readers to Piety and Virtue.   This
Mixture fhould be fo managed, as that the Machines
may be retrenched, without retrenching any thing from
the Acqion.
As to the Manner in which the Machinev are to adq; it
may be obferved, that in the old Mythology there are
Gods both good, bad, and indifferent ; and that our Paf-
fions may be converted into fo many allegorical Divini-
ties : fo that every thing, both good and bad in a Poem,
may be attributed to thefe Machines, and may be tranf-
aaedby them. They don't however always ad in the
fame manner ; fometimes they ad without appearing,
and by fimple Infpirations, which have nothing in them
extraordinary or miraculous ; as when we fay the Devil
fuggeff ed fuch a Thought, &c. The fecond Manner of
their aaing is entirely miraculous ; as when a Divinity
prefents itfelf vifibly before Men, fo as to be known by
WEl= ; or when they difguife themfelves under fome hu-
man Form   without difcovering themselves.  The third
Manner partakes of each of the two, and confills in
,9 ) MAC
Oracles, Dreams, and extraordinary Infpirations; wl'ch
Ifo" calls Demi.Macbines.  All thefe Manners ought to
be fo managed, as to carry a Verifimilitude; and tho&
Verifimilitude be of a vaft Extent in Machines, as being
founded on the Divine Power ; yet has it Bounds. Ho-
race propofes three kinds of Machines for the Stage; the
firfl is a God vifibly prefent among the Aclors, which,
he fays, fhould never be introduc'd but on a great Oc-
cafion. The fecond contains more incredible and ex-
traordinary Machines ; as the Metamorphofis of Progne in-
to a Swallow, of Cadmus into a Serpent : and even thefe
Machines he does not abfolutely condemn or exclude
wholly out of the Poem, but only out of the Scene and
the Sight of the Specfators : they are not to be repre-
fented, but may be recited. The third kind of Machines
is absolutely abfurd  and he rejeas it entirely: the In-
fiance he gives, is that of a Child taken alive out of the
Belly of a Monfler that had devoured it. The other
two Manners are allow'd indifferently in the Epopea i
and without that Diflindion of Horace, which only fuits
the Stage 3 it being in the Drama alone, that a Difference
may be made between what pafles in the Scene, or the
Sight of the Spedators, and what behind the Curtain.
See Bo.
MACROCEPHALUS, from pauxi magnus, great, and
xpatCmi, Caput, the Head, is fometimes ufed to fignify an
Head larger than of a natural Si ze.
MACROCOSM, a Term feldom ufed but in oppofi-
tion to Microcofin. By Macrocofm we mean the World ;
and by Microcofm, which fignifies little World, we
mean Man. The Word. Macrocofm is form'd from the
Greek &xpg-, Great, and xorpaG-, World.
MACULAE, in Altronomy, dark Spots, of an irregular
changeable Figure X obferved in the face of the Sun
firfl taken notice of byScbeiner in i6ii, and afterwards
accurately obferved by Gafilems, Hevehius, Mr. FlamJtead,
Cajni, Kircb, &c. Many of thefe Macule appear tocon-
filt of heterogeneous Parts ; whereof the darker and
more denfe are call'd by Hevelius, Nuclei, and are incom-
paffed, as it were, with Atmofpheres fomewhat rarer
and clefs obfcure i but the Figure both of the Nuclei and
entire Macuelx are variable. In 1644, Hevelius obferv'd a
fmall thin Macula, which in two Days time grew to ten
times its Bulk ; appearing withal much darker, and with
a larger Nucleus 5 and fuch fudden Mutations are fre-
quent. The Nucleus, he obferv'd, began to fail fenfibly
e'er the Spot difappeared, and that, e'er it quite va-
nilhed, broke into four, which in two Days reunited.
Some Macule have lafled 2, 3, I0, 15, 2o, 30, feldom 49
Day s, tho' Kircbius obferv'd one in i 68 i, from April z6
to the 17th of NTly. The Spots move over the Sun's
Disk, with a Motion fornewhat fmaller near the Limb
than near the Centre 5 that obferv'd by Kircb was
twelve Days vifible in the Sun's Disk; for fifteen Days
more it lay hid behind it ; it being their Rule to return
to the Limb whence they departed in z7, fometimes in
28 Days. Laflly, it mufll be obferved, that the Macule
contrad themfelves near the Limb, and in the middle of
the Disk appear much larger ; thofe often running into
one in the Disk, which in the Limb were feparate; ihat
many of them arife in the middle of the Disk, and ma-
ny difappear in the fame j and that none of them are
obferved to deviate from their Path near the Horizon:
Whereas Hevelius obferving Mercury in the Sun, near the
Horizon, found him too low 3 being thruft 2.7 Seconds
beneath his former Path.  From  thefe Phmenomena we
(I.) That fince Mlercury's Depreflion below his Path
arifes from his Parallax, the Maculx having no Parallax
from the Sun, are nearer him than the Planet; but
fince they are hid behind the Sun three Days longer
than they are in the Hemifphere vifible to us, it fol-
lows alfo, that they don't adhere to the Surface of the
Sun, but are at fome diflance from it.
(z-.) That fince they arife and difappear in the middle
of the Sun's Disk, and undergo various Alterations with
regard both to Bulk, Figure, and Denfity, they muit
be formed de nosvo, xnd again diffolved about the Sun;
and are therefore, in all probability, a kind of Solar
Clouds formed out of its Exhalations.
(3.) Since then the Solar Exhalations rife over his
Body; and are fu fpended at a certain Height from it; it
appears, from the Laws of Hydroilatics, that the Sun
mufl be incompatlfed with forne Fluid to drive thofe Ex-
halations upwards ; which Fluid mull be denfer, as it
is lower  and rarer, as higher, like our Atmofphere:
And fince the Macube difTolve and difappear in the ve-
ry middle of the Sun's Disk, the Matter thereof, i.e
the Solar Exhalations mull fall back again to the Sun; 4
,Whence there mullu arife Changes in the Sun's Atmo-
fphere, and confequently in the Sun iffelf.
(4-) Sin1ce

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