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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Forum - Friction,   pp. 81-100 PDF (19.6 MB)


Page 91


FRA
(9t )
If the Mailer be oblig'd to refit his VefTet during
yage, the Merchant ihall wait; or elfe pay the whole
t.: If the Veffel could not be refitted, the Mailer is
to hire another immediately; otherwife only to be
his Fraight in proportion to the Part of the Voyage
a'd (tho', in cafe the Merchant prove that the Vef-
he time it fet fail, was not capable of the Voyage,
tiler mufl loofe his Fraight, and account for Damages
Merchant.
t Fraight Ihall be paid for Merchandizes which the
was oblig'd to fell for Viatuals, or refitting, or other
ry Occafions; paying for the Goods at the Rate the
er fold at} where they were landed.
t in cafe of a Prohibition of Commerce 'eith the
y whither the Veffiel is bound, fo that it is ob-
o be brought back again; the Mailer Ihall only be
raight for going.
if a Ship be flop'd or detain'd in its Voyage, by an
,-go by order of the Prince; there {hall neither be
'aight paid for the Time of the Detention, in cafe it
ed per Month: Nor Ihall the Fraight be increas'd, it
Sfor the Voyage; but the Pay, and Viauals of the
during the Detention, ihall be deem'd Average.
at the Mailer lhtall take no Fraight for any Goods loft
pwreck, plunder'd by Pyrates, or taken by the Ene-
nlefs the Ship and Goods be redeem'd; in which
elall be paid his Fraight to the Place where he
ken ; upon contributing to the Redemption.
That the Mafier {hall be paid his Fraight for the Goods
fav'd from Shipwreck; and in cafe he can't get a Veflel to
carry them unto the Place where they were bound, that he
Ihall be paid in Proportion to the Part of the Voyage already
gone.
That the Mailer may not detain any Merchandize in his
Veiel, in default of Payment of Fraigb-t; tho' he may or-
der them to be feiz'd any time, or any where afterwards.
That if Merchandizes in Cafiks, as Wines, Oils, &c. have fo
run out in Carriage, that the Vefels are left empty; or al-
mol1 empty, the Merchant may relinquish them, and the
Mailer be oblig'd to take them for their Fraight; though
this does not hold of any other Goods damag'd* or dimi-
nifh'd of themfelves, or thro' Accidents.
The Word Fraight is form'd of the French Fret, figni-
fying the fame thing; and Fret, of Fretum, an Arm of the
Sea - tho' others chufe to derive it from the German Fracht,'
or tye Flemilh Vracht, fignifying Carriage.
FRAIGHI-T is alfo a Duty of 50 So/s perTun, paid to the
Crown of France by the Captains and Mailers of all foreign
Vefiels at their Entrance and coming out of the Ports and
Havens of that Kingdom. And note, that all Vetels not
built in France, however they may belong to the Subjects of
France, are reputed Foreigners, and fubjie& to this Impolt;
unlefs it be made appear, that two Thirds of the Ship's
Crew are French.
By the 11th Article of the Treaty of Commerce concluded
at Utrecht between England and France, this Duty of 50
Sols per Tun fhould be remitted the EngijZb; and at the
fame time the Duty of 5 s. Sterling fhould be fupprefs'd in
favour of the French: But the Execution of that Article, as
well as the TarifF fettled between the two Nations, has
been fufpended. The fDtch however and the Hans 7'owns
are exempted from the Duty of Fret.
FRAIGHT is alf'o the Burthen, or Lading of a Ship; or
theBurthen of Goods, FEtc. fhe has on board. See BURTHEN.
FRAIL, a Balket of Ruffies; or fuch like Materials, to
pack up Figs, Raifins, Fec.
It is alfo a certain Quantity of Raifins, of about 7 5 Pounds.
PRAISE, in Fortification, a kind of Defence, confifding
of pointed Stakes, driven parallel to the Horizon, into the
Retrenchments of a Camp, a Half Moon, or the like; to
fend off and prevent any Approach or Scalade.
Fraifes differ from Palifflades chiefly in this, that the
latter Riand pependicular to the Horizon; and the former
jet out parallel to the Horizon. See PALISSADE.
Fraijes are chiefly us'd in Retrenchments, and other
Works, thrown tip of Earth: Sometimes they are found un-
der' the Parapet of a Rampart; ferving inflead of the Cor-
don of Stone, us'd in Stone Works.
He fortified' all the weak Places of his Camp with
and Paliffades.-All the Outworks of the Place
'ais'd and paliffiaded.
SING of a .atallion, is the lining of the Mufque-
around with Pikes; in cafe of their being charg'd
dy of Horfe.
14E, in Joinery, TSc. a kind of Cafe, wherein a thing
r inclos d, or even fupported; as a Window Frame,
of a Pilure, of a Table, £ec. See WINDOW, &C.
Frame is alfo a Machine, us'd in divers Arts. The
Frame is more ufualjy call'd Chafe. See CHASE.
Founders Frame is a kind of Ledge, inclofing a
which being Ill'd with Sand, ferves as a Mould to
ir Work in.  See FovNDERYv, and MOULD.
F R A .
FRO
FRAME iS particularly us'd fbr a' Sort of Loom, whereon}
they fcretch their Linens, Silks, Stuffs, Tc. to be embroid-
er'd, quilted, Fefc. SeeEMBR OIDERY;TAPESTRY Work, &c,
FRAME, among Painters, &fc. is a kind of a Cha/1y; o
Square, comrpos' of four long Pieces, or Slips of Wood,'
join'd together the intermediate Space whereof is divided
by little Strings or Threads into a great Number of little
Squares, like the Mafhes of a Net, and for thai reafori
fometimes call'd RetiutlA.
Its Ufe is in the reducing of Figures from great to fitiall.,
or from fmall to great. See REDUCTION.
FRAMING of a Houfe, is all the Timber Work therein ;:
tiz. the Carcafe, Flooring, tPartition7ing, Roofing, Cie/ing
Beams, Aihlering, &c.   See CARCASE, PARTITION,'
Roar, FLOOR, f-c.
FRAMPOLE Fences are fuch Fences as any Tenant in
the Manor of Writtel in Elfex hath againft the Lords De-
means'; whereby he hath the Wood growing on the Fencei
and as many Trees or Poles as he can reach from the Top
of the Ditch with the Helve of his Ax; toward the Repair
of his Fence.  The late Chief Jullice framnpton, whilft
Steward of this Court, acknowledg'd he could not find 6ur
the Reafon, why thefe Fences were call'd Frampole.
It may come from  the Saxon Fremful, profitable; or
may be a Corruption of Fran-pole, becaufe the Poles are free
for the Tenant to take.
FRANCHISE, a Privilege, or Exemption from the or'-
dinary Jurifdi&ion; or an Afylum, or Sanr.$luary, where
People are fecure of their Perfons, _ec. See ASYLUM.
Churches and Monafleries in Spain are Franchzbjs for
Criminals: So were they antiently in England; till they were
abus'd to fuch a degree, that there was a Neceflry for abo-
ilbing them. See SANCTUARY.
One of the moll remarkable Capitularies made by Charle-
main, in his Palace of Herifial, in 779, was that relating
to the Franchifes of Churches.
The Right of Franchifes was held fo facred, that evenr
the lefs religious Kings obferv'd it to a degree of Scru pu-
loufnefs: But to fuch Excefs in time was it carried, that
Charlemaign refolv'd to bring it down. Accordingly he for-
bid any Provifion being carried to Criminals retir'd into'
Churches for Refuge. See REFUGE.
FRANCHISE is alfo us'd for an Immunity from the ordi-
nary Tributes and Taxes.
This is either Real, or Perfohal, that is, eithei belong-'
ing immediately to the Perfon; or elfe by means of this or
that Place, or Office of Immunity.
FRANCHISE Royal, is a Place where the King's Writ
runs not; as at Chefler, and !Durham: And antiently aft
Sundal and Exam#hire in Northumberland. See SA.c.
FRANCHISE of knarters, is a certain Space, or Difri&t
at Rome, wherein are the Houfes of the Embaffadors of
the Princes of Europe; and where fuch as retire, cannot be
arrefled or feiz'd by the Sbirri, or Sergeants, nor profectured
at Law.
The People of Rome look on this as an old Ufurpation, and
a Scandalous Privilege, which Embaffladors, out of a Jea-
loafy of their Power, carried to a great length in the XVth
Century, by enlarging infenfibly the Dependances of their
Palaces or Houfes, within which the Right of Afylum was
antiently confin'd. Several of the Popes, .7uins Ill. fPils'
XIV. Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V. publith'd Bulls and Or.
dinances againfi this Abufe; which had refcued fo confider.
able a Part of the City from their Authority, and render'&
it a Retreat for the molt Abandoned.
At length Innocent XI. exprefly refufed to receive any mord
Embaff-adors but fuch as would make a formal Renunciation'
of the Franchife of Qiyarters. See PRIVILEDG'I Place.
FRANCHISING, lee ENFRANCHISING, and MAwumMIS-
SION.
FRANCIGENA, or FxtENCHMAN,- in out antiertt Cuw
floms, was a general Appellation of all Foreigners, i. e. all
Perfons who could not prove themfeives Eng/iAhnman. See
ENGLECERY,                                        I
FRANGIPANE, an exquifite kind of Perfume, fre-
quently given to the Leather whereof Gloves, Purfes, Bagsi,
Lec. are made.
It takes its Narme from a Roman 1o4bltenan, of the an-
tient Family of Frangipang; who was the Inventor thereof.
There is alfo a kind of pefme'd Liquor of the fatie De-
nomination, faid to have been invented by a Grandfon of,
NMtio Frangipani; and a perfum'd kind of Ros So/is, call&
by the fame Name. See   Ro SOLrS. I
FRANK,orpRANC, aTerm literally fignifying free, open,
and fincere, exempt from publick  Impofitions and Charges:
as Frank Confeffion, Frank Fair, Frank Letter,  -     See
T   The Term Frank is much us'd in our antient Gufloih,
and Tenures; where it receives various particular Modifica-
tions and Meanings, according to the   Words it is comined
with, as
pa a N.
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