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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Corporation - Crown,   pp. 331-350 PDF (19.1 MB)

Page 350

CiotoW-nirv in the Military Art, are Irons with four
Points, of three or four Inches long; fo that which way fo-
ever they fall, one Point will be uppermo{1.
CROWS-BiEET, in a Ship, are minall Ropes, divided by
the Hole of a little Block or Pully, called the dead Man's
Eye, into fix, ten, or more Parts.
CROWN, Corona, a Mark of Regal Dignity; or an Or-
nament wore on the Head by Kings and Sovereigns, as a
Symbol of their Authority. See KING, SC. -
In the remoteft Antiquity, the Crown was only given to
Gods   Pliny fays, that Bacchus was the firfc who us'd it:
5Pherycides, cited by TIertu1lian de Corona, fays Saturn: Dio-
dorus afcribes it to 7upiter, after his Vidory over the fi-
tans: 2. Fabius {Pi~tr. afcribes the Invention to 7anus;
adding, that it was an Ornament he us'd in Sacrificing: Leo
the Egyptian fays, it was Ifis who firfc wore a Cro-wn ; and
that it confiMed of Ears of Cor, the Ufe whereof fhe firm
taught Men.
In this, moft Authors agree, that the Crown, originally,
was rather a Religious than a Civil Ornament ; rather one
of the Pontificalia, than the Regalia: that it only became
common to Kings, as the antient Kings were Priefts as well
as Princes i and that the modern Princes are entitled to it,
in their Ecclefiaflical Capacity rather than their Temporal.
The firff Crowns were no more than a Bandelette, or
Headband, drawn round the Head, and tied behind; as we
R+ill fee it in .7upiter's Heads on Medals, as alfo in the Pto-
lemies, and the Kings of Syria.
Afterwards they confifed of two fBandelette's; by de-
grees they took Branches of diflerent Trees; at length they
added Flowers; infoomuch that 7Iertullian de Corona, allures
us, (from Claudius Saturninus, who had wrote exprefly on
the Subjea) there was not any Plant whereof Crowns had
not been made.
The Woods and Groves were fearch'd, to find feveral
Crowns for the feveral Deities: Thus, on Medals, we find
Yulpiter's Crown of Flowers, more frequently of Laurel;
o7fno's of the Vine; that of .Bacchus, Vine with Grapes,
Vine-Leaves, and Branches of Ivy, with Flowers and Ber-
ries: Thofe of Ca/or, Pollux, and the River-Gods, of
Bulrufhes: That of Apollo, fometimes of Laurel, Sometimes
of Ruffles; that of Saturn, new Figs ; that of Hercules,
Poplar ; that of Pan, Pine or Aldar; that of Lucina, Dic-
tamnus; that of the Horse, the Fruits proper to each Seafon;
that of the Graces, Olive-Branches, as well as that of Miner-
va: That of Venus, Rofes : of Ceres, Ears of Corn, as well
as that of I.i's: That of the Lares, Myrtle or Rofemary, ec.
Crowns were not only us'd for the Statues and Images of
the Gods, for the Priefls in Sacrificing, and for Kings and
Emperors; but alfo for Altars, Temples, Doors of Houfes,
facred Veffels, Vidims, Ships, ec.
The Poets cro~wn'd thofe who were Vidors in the Solemn
Games, Warriors, EpIc. See OLYMPIC, SC.
From fome Pafages in Eufebius Cdfarienfis, fome Authors
conclude, that Biffops had antiently their Crowns.
The Roman Emperors had four Kinds of Crowns, fill feen
on Medals; viz. a Crown of Laurel, a Radiating Crown, a
Crown adorn'd with Pearls and Precious Stones; the fourth
a kind of Bonnet, or Cap, fomething like the Mortier.
The firai was that ordinarily ufed from the Time of 7u-
lius Cefar: The Right of bearing it was granted him by
the Senate; fome fay, on account of his Baldnefs; and af-
terwards continued to his Succeffors. Yufjinian was the firfi
who took that of the Bonnet-kind.
The Papal Crown, is compos'd of a Tiara, and a triple
Crown incompafling the Tiara; having two Pendants, like
the Bifhops Mitres : Thefe three Crowns reprefent the pre-
tended triple Capacity of the Pope, viz. as High Prieft,
Supreme Judge, and fole Legiflator of the Chriftians. See
The Imperial Crown is a Bonnet, or Tiara, with a Semi-
circle of Gold, fupporting a Globe with a Crofs a-top.
The Engli/h Crown is adorn'd with four CrofTes, in the
manner of thofe of Malta ; between which are Flower-de-
Lys's. It is cover'd with four Diadems, which meet at a
little Globe fupporting a Crofs.
The French Crown is a Circle of eight Flower-de-Lys's,
incompafs'd with fix Diadems; bearing a double
Flower-de-Lys, which is the Crefl of France.
The Spani/h Crown is adorn'd with large indented Leaves,
cover'd with Diadems, bordering on a Globe, furmounted
with a Crofs. See CORONET.
Among the Romans, there were various Kinds of Crowns,
di{tributed as Rewards of Military Atchievements: The
Oval (Crown was the firfl, made of Myrtle; and was be-
flow'd on Generals who had been vi-iorious over Slaves, un-
worthy of the Roman Valour, and who were entitled to the
Honours of the leffer Triumph, call'd Ovation. See Ov&TIoN.
The fecond was the Naval or Roiral Crown, confiding
of a Circle of Gold, rais'd with Prows and Poops of Ships;
given to the Captain who firfi grappled, or the Soldier who
dry jump'd aboard, an Enemy's Ship. See ROSTR AL.
The third cal'id /allaris, or Caflrenfls.
of Gold, rais'd with Piles or Pailifades3
firfi leap'd into the Enemies Camp, or forct
The fourth, call'd Mural Crown, was a
indented or embattel'd; given him who f
Wall of a Place befieg'd, and there lodi
This Crown we alfo find given, on Medals,,
Genii and Guardians of Provinces and Placi
The fifth the Civic Crown ; made of a
Oak: given a Citizen who had fav'd the
Citizen in a Battel or Affault. See Civic.
The fixth was the Triumphal Crown, In
of Laurel, given a General who had gai
conquer'd a Province. This was afterward
The feventh the Corona Obfidionalis, or
of Grafs or Herbs, found on the Ground; i
who had deliver'd a Roman Army befieg'c
and oblige'd him to decamp. See OBSIDIC
The eighth was alfo a Crown of Lauri
Greeks to their *blete5; and by the Rowm
had negotiated, or confirm'd a Peace w
This was the leafi ef eem'd.
tBefides thefe, in Antiquity, we meet with RadialCr
given to Princes at their Tranflation among the Gods;
ther before or after their Death.
Cafaubon fays, this Crown was peculiar to Deities
'tis certain Nero took it in his Life-time.
Athletic Crowns, were deffin'd to crown Viaors a
Publick Ga mes.
There are alfo Sacerdotal Crowns for the Priefis.
In an Ecclefiaffical Senfe, Crown is alfo ufed for thi
rical Tonfure; which is the Mark, or Characier of Ih
mi/ Ecclefiaflicks. See TONSURE.
T   i  aQ JILc S.AL.V ule Ur hair, ,11v a o tt trom tne Om
of the Head; more or lefs broad, according to the Qualit
of the Orders receiv'd. See ORiDER.
That of a mere Clerk is the fmalleft; that of Priefl
and Monks the largefr.
The Clerical Crown, was antiently a round Lift of Hi
lhav'd off around the Head, representing a real Crws
This is eafily obferv'd in feveral antient Statues, Uc. Th
Religious of S. fDominic and S. Francis fill ufe it.
Father Danziel fays, that S. Louis ranfom'd the Crow X
thorns of our Saviour, which had been pawn'd by Bald'u
Emperor of Cc~flantinople, for an immenfe Sum of Money
and tranfporred it, with great Ceremony, to France: who
'tis fill kept in the Holy Chapel. The Author of the Hi
tory of S. Louis, adds, that the Thorns were fill green i
his Days. Some Writers, from Clemens Alexandrinus, hol
that it was made of Bramble, ex Rubo * others of Blad
Thorn, ex Rhamno; others of White-Thorn. Thofe in
fee it in the Chapel, take it to be the 7uncus Marinus.
Galiot derives the Word Corona, whence Crown, fiXo
the Latin Cornu, Horn; becaufe the antient Crowns wet
pointed in manner of Horns; which were antiently, bo
by 7ews and Gentiles, efteem'd as Marks of Power, Stre
Authority, and Empire.
Hence, in the Holy Scripture, Horns are us'd for t
Regal Dignity: and accordingly, Horn and Croziin, in th
Hebrew, are exprefs'd by the fame Word.
Ch. Pafchal has wrote exprefly de Coronis :: Yaudelot li
made a good Number of curious Obfervations on the fain
Subje&, that had efcap'd Pa/chal. Du Cange gives uS
curious Differtation of Crowns; and Schmeizell, a Goer
a Treatife of Royal Crowns, both antient and modnAern
CROWN, in Commerce, is a general Name for C
Foreign or Domeflick, of, or near, the Value of fiv
Sterling. See MONEY, and COIN.
In its limited Senfe, Crown is only applicable t
pular Engfijh Coin which bears that Name, anc
equivalent to 6o Englh Pence, or five Shillings.
Livres I5 Sols French Money: But, in its extenhi
it takes in feveral others; as the French Ecu,
call the French Crown, firuck in i641 for do Sols,
rifen to  5 Livres; the  Patagon,  Dollar,- Ducato
dollar, and Piafire or Piece of Eight. See Ecu1
DucATooN, RIXDOLLAR. PIASThZ       . fC-II   - r
CROWN, in Architeaurte, the uppermof MeM
Cornice; cal'd alfo Corona and Larmier. S6
CROWN, in Affronomy, one of the Northern
tions. See CORONA.
CROWN, or CORONET, 'in Heraldry, is us'd fC
prefentation of that Ornament, in the Mantling
moury; to exprefs the Dignity of the Perfon -c
The Crown here is of more -Antiquity even
Helmet; and was us'd as a Symbol of Viiorytanp
Radiated, or Pointed Crowns, are thofe of i
Emperors, which bad  IX Points; reprefentlitn' a,
have it, the twelve Months of the Year.

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