Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
Catholicon - Changes, pp. 173-192 PDF (19.2 MB)
C A ( 192 ) C HI A )~auda fays, it was the Emperor himfelf who fat and ren- -der'd Juflice within the Lattice; the Chancellor attending -at the Door thereof, whence he took his Title. Others fay, he had it from this, that all Letters, Ad- dreffes, Petitions, &c. to the King, being firfi examin'd by him, were cancell'd where amifs : Others, becaufe all Pa- tents, Commiffions, and Warrants coming from tit King, were examin'd and cancell'd by him. Others, becaufe he cancell'd and annull'd the Sentences of other Courts. DJu Cange, from 7oannes de 7anua, fetches the Original of Chancellor from 1PaleJfnie, where the Houfes being flat, and made in form of a Terrace, with Parapets or Pallifa- does call'd Cancelli; thofe who mounted thefe Houfes to rehearfe any Harangue, were call'd Cancellarii : whence the Name pafi'd to thofe who pleaded at the Bar, whom he calls Cancelli forenfes, and at length to the Judge who prefided; and lafily to the King's Secretaries. This Officer is now in great Authority in all Countries: the Perfon who bears it with us, is the Lord High CHANCELLOR of Elngland, the firft Perfon of the Realm, next after the King and Princes of the Blood, in all Civil Affairs. He is the chief Adminifirator of Juf- tice next the Sovereign; being the Judge of the Court of Chancery. See CHANCERY. All other Juflices are ty'd to the firin Law, but the Chancellor has the King's abfolute Power to moderate the Rigour of the Written Law, to govern his Judgment by the Law of Nature and Confcience, and to order all things fecundum rrquum & bonum. Accordingly, Staumford fays, the Chancellor has two Powers, the one Abfolute, the other ordinary ; meaning, that tho by his ordinary Power he mu}f ob~erve the fame Form of Procedure as other Judges, yet in his abfolute Power he is not limited by any written Law, but by Confcience and Equity. See EQyITY. The Offices of Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper, are by the Statute 5 Eliz. made the fame thing; till that time they were different ; and frequently fubfifted at the fame Time in different Perfons: Sometimes the Lord Chancel- lor had a Vice-Chancellor, who was Keeper of the Seal. See KEEPER. The Keeper was created per traditionem magni Sigilli, but the Lord Chancellor by Patent ; tho now that he has the Keeper's Office, he is created in like manner by giv- ing him the Seal. The Chancellor is likewife Speaker of the Houfe of Lords. See PARLIAMENT. Tho he be fole Judge of the Court of Chancery, yet in Matters of much difficulty he fometimes confults the other Judges; fo that this Office may be difcharg'd by one who is no profefs'd Lawyer, as antiently it commonly was. He has twelve Afflilants, or Coadlutors, antiently call'd Cle- rici, as being in Holy Orders, now Mafters in Chancery, the firfl whereof is the Mafter of the Rolls. See MASTER of the Rolls, MASTERS in Cbanccry, &c. CHANCELLOR of a Cathedral, is the Judge of the Bi- shop's Court, held in the Cathedral of each Diocefs. See Bisnop's Court, and CATHEDRAL. He was antiently call'd EccleflaJ'icts, and Efifeopi Bc- dicus, the Church-Lawyer. See ECCLESIASTICVS, ADVO- CATE, SC. In the Monaflicon his Office is thus defcrib'd, viz. to hear the Leffons and Lectures read in the Church, either by himfelf or his Vicar; to corred and fet right the Reader when he reads amifs; to infpedt Schools, to hear Caufes, apply the Seal, write and difparch the Letters of the Chap- ter, keep the Books, to take care there be frequent Preach- ings, both in the Church and out of it, and to aflign the Office of Preaching to whom he liffs. CHANCELLOR of the Dutchy of Lancafter, is an Officer, the Head of that Court; his Bufinefs is to judge and de- termine all Controverfies between the King, and his Te- nants of the Dutchy Land; and otherwife to direds all the King's Affairs relating to that Court. See DuTCHY Court. CHANCELLOR of thie Exchequer, is an Officer, fupposd by fome to have been created for qualifying Extremities in the Exchequer. See EXCHEQUER. He fits in that Court and the Exchequer Chamber, and, with the refc of the Court, orders Things to the King's bell benefit. He is always in Commiffilon with the Lord Treafurer for letting Lands accruing to the Crown by DilTo- lution of Abbeys, and otherwise: He has Power, with others, to compound for Forfeitures on Penal Statutes, Bonds, and Recognizances enter'd into by the King. He has a great Authority in managing the Royal Re- venue, and in Matters of Firfi-Fruits. See REVENUES. The Court of Equity, in the Exchequer Chamber, is held before the Lord Treafurer, Chancellor, and Barons, as that of Common Law before the Barons only. See BA- RON, SC. CHANCELLOR of an Univerfzty, is he who Seals the DJi. plom0S~as or Letters of Degrees, Provifion, Ac. given in the Univerfiry. See UNIvERsITY. Y.ey Chancellor of O~ford is their Chief Magiftrate, Thefhanello ofOncfrd:is their Chief Magiftrate, eledted by the Students themfelves: His Offic Vita, to govern the Univerfity, preferve and Rights and Privileges, convoke Afemblieq, ani among the Members under his Jurifdiaion. Under the Chancellor is the Vice-Cl ancellcr, v annually; being nominated by the Chancellor, by the Univerfity in Convocation. His Bufint ply the Chancellor's Abfence. At his Entrance upon his Office, he chufes fc Chancellors, out of the Heads of Colleges, to C he deputes his Power in his abfence. The Chancellor of Cambridge, is in moq refpedc fame with that of Oxford, only he does not hold his C dlblsrg? t. huef mt. ho Pl.f. A t-r^rt --,r Y11 r He has under him a Commiffary,, who holds a Court of Record of Civil Caufes, for all Perfons of the Univerfity under the Degree of Mailers of Arts. The Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge is chofen annually by the Senate, out of two Perfons nominated by the Heads of the feveral Colleges and Halls. CHANCELLOR of the Order of the Garter, and other | Military Orders, is an Officer who feals the Commiflions, and Mandates of the Chapter and Affembly of the Knights, keeps the Regifler of their Deliberations, and delivers Acs thereof under the Seal of 'the Order. See GARTER,Fe CHANCERY, the grand Court of Equity and Confci- ence, inflituted to moderate the Rigour of the other Courts, that are ty'd to the firint Letter of the Law. See COURT, LAW, and EQoJiTY. The Judge of this Court is the Lord High Chancellor, whofe Fundion fee under CHANCELLOR. The Proceedings of this Court are either Ordinary, like other Courts, according to the Laws, Statutes, and Cuf- tomns of the Nation, and in Latin, by granting out Writs Re- medial and Mandatory, Writs of'Grace, ELc. Iee WRIT, EC. Or Extraordinary, according to Equity and Confcience, and in Engli/9i, by Bills, Anfwers, and Decrees, to exa- mine Frauds, Combinations, Trufis, fecret Ufes, Le'c. to foften the Severity of Common Law, and refcue Men from Oppreflion; to relieve 'em againil Cheats, unfortu- nate Accidents, Breaches of Trutf, Fc. Out of the Court of Clhancery, are iftu'd Writs or Sum- mons's for Parliaments and Convocations, Edids, Procla- mations, Charters, Protebrions, Parents, Safe Conduds, Writs of Moderata, MZlfricordia, &c. See WRIT, SUM- MONS, CONVOCATION, EDICT, PROCLAMAION, CHAR-~ TER, Cc. Here are alfo feal'd and enroll'd Letters Patent, Trea. ties and Leagues, Deeds, Writs, Commifflions, &c. See PATENT, DEED, Sc. The Officers of this Court, befide the Lord Cbancellor, who is fupreme Judge, are, the 2 dfler of'the Rolls, who, in the Chancellor's Abfence, hears Caufes and gives Orders- and twelve Maflers of Chancery, who are Affiftants, and fit by turns on the Bench ; fee NVASTERS, LSC. For the Fnglijh Part of this Court are Six Clerks, who have each under him about fitrc en more, in the Nature of Attorneys of the Court : Two chief Examiners, for exa- mining Witneffes, who have each five or fix Clerks apiece: One principal Regifler, who has four or five Deputies: Clerk of the Cro-wn, who makes Writs, Commiflions, &c. Warden of the Fleet: Serjeant at Arms, who bears the, Mace before the Chancellor; and the UMher and Crier of the Court. See Six CLERKS, REGISTER, WARDEN, SEa.- JEANT, SC. To the Latin Part belong the twenty four Curdrtors, and their Clerks, who make out original Writs ; Clerks of the petty fsag; Clerks of the ZIfanaper; Controller of the Hana- * per; Clerk of Appe~al Clerk of the Faculties; Sealer. Chafe-Wax; Clerk of de (Patents, of Prefentations, 2f* mi]ions, licences to alienate, Enrollments, Proteffiows, Snbcexnas, Afavits, &c. See each under its proper Arti- cle, CURSITOR, CLERK, CHAFE-Wax, &C. CHANDELIERS, in Fortification, are wooden Stakes fix Foot high, and fix or feven apart, between which are plac'd Fafcines, to cover the Workmen on Approaches. See FASCINES. Thefe are fometimes made to prevent the Enemy frormi: feeing what palfes within. The Difference between Chandeliers and Blinds confifis in this, that the former ferve to cover the Pioneers before and the latter alfo cover them over Head. See BLINDS. CHANGE, in Commerce, Uec. See EXCHANGE. CHANGER, an Officer belonging to the Mint, whW changes Money for Gold or Silver Bullion. See MINT. Money-CHANGER, is a Banker, who deals in the Er change, Receipt, and Payment of Monies, See BANR. CHANGES, in Arithmetic, Lec. the Permutations of Variations of any Number of Quantities; with regard tl their Pofition, Order, W&c. See COMBINATION. TPo find all the pojible Changes of any Number of-a tities, or how oft their Order may be vary'd. Suppof N 'i Ii P S 4 D k e'
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