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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Capillation - catholick,   pp. 153-172 PDF (19.8 MB)


Page 157


*W,
II N., i,
i  'L  I
MX
, AN,
;rj
( I q7'"
ta the Eldeft Daughter, cetelis filiabus aliunde jatisfac-
tis. See BA1RONY.
CAPUT fDraconis, or the Dre'gon's lead, in Afironomy,
the Name of the Moon's afcending Node. See DR AGON'S-
.7lead ; fee alfo NODE.
CAPUT Gallinaginis, or Galli Gallinacei, Cock's Head, is
£ kind of Septum, or fpongeous Border, at the Extremities
or Apertures of each of the Veficuke Seminales; ferving
to prevent the Seed coming from one fide, from rufhing
upon, and fo flopping the Difcharge of the other. Some
will have its ufe to be, to prevent the Impulfe of the Seed
from dilating the Orifices of the Veflcuke, and fo oozing
out, except when affifled by the Compreflion of the fur-
rounding Parts; as in Copulation: But this, according to
Dr. !Drake, is rather the Office of a diflina Caruncle plac'd
at each Orifice, and acling as a Valve. See VESICUL2B
,Seminales, SEED, and GENERATION.
CAPUT Mortnum. in Chvmiffrv- the. Fercec rpmaining of
ody, after all the volatile and humid Parts, as the
nM, Spirit, Salt, &)c. have been extra&ed therefrom,
Irce of Fire. What -remains after DifLillation, is only
1-  --    ?I-   -  n          -.     .   -.   -
properly call dE reces. See kjECES. E-er it be uaput mor-
ruum, it mufl likewife have pafs'd the Retort. See Dis-
TILLATION, and RETORT.
The Caput Mortutim, cali'd alfo  ierra damnata, is
found in form of a friable, porous Matter, without Tafle
or Smell: 'Tis rank'd among the Chymical Elements;
and fuppos'd to conflitute the dry, fix'd, earthy, and
Solid Part of all mix'd Bodies. As an Element, it is more
commonly exprefs'd by the Name Earth. See EARTH.
'Tis what the Chymifls call a pajive Element, or Princi-
Sle ; ferving as the Bafis or Support of the adtive ones. See
IRINCIPLE.
The Term is fometimes more immediately reflrain'd to
the Remains of Vitriol, after Diflillation X otherwife call'd
Calcothar Vitrioli. See CALCOTHk?..
The Caput Mortnum is never pure, but there is Hill
fome arive Principle remaining in it, and particularly a
fix'd Salt. See SALT.  Thus the Calcothar Vitrioli, ex-
pos'd to the Air, is re-converted into Vitriol. See VITtIOLt;
fee alfo ELEMENT.
CAR, CARR, or CARRE, a kind of rolling Throne,
us'd in Triumphs, and at the fplendid Entries of Princes.
See CH.ARIOT.
Plutarch relates, that Camillus having enter'd Rome in
Triumph, mounted on a Car drawn by four white Horfes,
it was look'd on as too haughty an Innovation. See TRi-
UNP4IH.
CAR, is alfo us'd for a kind of light open Chariot. Pon-
tanus, L. III. de Stellis, obferves, that Eridhonius was
the firfl that harnefs'd Horfes, and join'd 'em in a Car, or
Chariot. See CHARIOT.
The Word is from the antient Gaulijh, or Celtic, Carr;
mention'd by Cefar, in his Commentaries, under the Name
Carrus.
The Car, on Medals, drawn either by Horfes, Lions, or
Elephants, udually fignifies, either a  Iriumpb, or an Apo-
tibefis: Sometimes a Proceffion of the Images of the Gods,
at a folemn Supplication ; and fometimes of thofe of fome
illufirious Family at a Funeral.  The Car cover'd, and
drawn by Mules, only fignifies a Confecration, and the
Honour done any one of having his Image carry'd at the
Games of the Circus. See CONSECRATION, EC.
The Car us'd by the Ladies, was call'd Pilentum, Car-
pentum, and haoferna. See BASTERNA.
CARABE, or KARABE, yellow Amber reduc'd to
ader. See AMBER.
CARABINE, a Fire-Arm, or little Harquebufs, with a
Ick ; antiently us'd in the Army, but now difus'd, by
ALln of the Time loft in cocking it. There are foome of thefe
rabines {}ill in ufe, having the infide of the Barrel fur-
v'd fpirally, which carry the Ball to a very great dif-
ice. The Carabine was formerly the Arms of the Light
.rfe, who were hence alfo call'd Carabineers: Thefe
~1   fr             *      I  i.
ieparate Companies, and tometimes Regiments in
ny; ferving to guard the Officers, to feize Polls, and
other Offices requiring Expedition. There are f11l1
)f thofe Carabineers in the French Horfe; two in
Company.
a derives the Word from the Spanilh Cara- and the
binus : Intimating the Carabineers to be People with
ices, from their manner of Fighting ; fometimes ad-
g, and fometimes retiring.
RACOL, in the Manage, a Motion which the Ca-
makes half round; or a half turn from Left to
; changing Hands; that his Enemy may be uncer-
n which fide he intends to attack: whether in Front,
ik.
LACOL, is alfo the half turn each Horfeman in an
makes after his Difcharge, to pafs from the Front
Squadron to the Rear. The Word comes from the
c, and that from the Hcre'w, Carac, invchvere. But
C A R
we have it immediately from the Spanibh; whete it £g.g
nifitkroperly a Snail, and figuratively the Evolution d
,fcrib' above.
CARACOL is Sometimes alfo us'd in Architeaure, for a
Staircafe in a Helix, or fpiral Form. See STAIRCASE.
CARACT, CARA          or   ARAT, is properly the
Name of the Weight, which expreffes the degree of Good-
nefs, Title, Perf~fion, or Imperfe~lion oFGold.  See
GOLD.
The Coiners fix the highefi Purity and Perfeaion of
Gold at 24 Carats; and the feveral Degrees are eflimated
from the Divifions hereof, which are call'd Grains: But
'tis obferv'd, that what care foever is taken in purifying
Gold, to clear it from Drofs, it can never be brought
to 24 Carats; but f11: comes Short .4. of a Carat, or a
Grain: this Grain they call a Sixteenth; and this fix-
teeneh they Subdivide into two Eighths i and each of
thofe eighths into two Sixteentbs: On which Calculation,
they fay, Gold may be purify'd as far as the firlt Sixteenth
of the fecond Eighth, but no further. See GRAIN.
Gold of 2z Carats, is that which has 22 Parts of fine
Gold, and two of Silver, or other Metal; or that which
in refining lofes 2 Parts in 24 of its Weight. The Gold-
fmiths generally work on Gold of 2.2 Carats.
The Carat Fine, as above, is the 24th Part of the Good-
nefs of a Piece of Gold ; the Carat Price, is the 24th Part
of the Value of a Piece of Gold: as, if the Piece be 384,
the Carat Price is t6 Pounds. We alfo Sometimes fay, the
Carat Height, which is the 24th Part of the Weight of the
Piece, or x92 Grains.
Menage, from Alciat, derives the Word Carat from the
Greek ix%6;nov, which was a kind of fmall Weight: But
Savot, with more probability, from X-esnoy, a Tribute-
Penny, or finall Coin firuck for that purpofe. Others de-
rive it limply from the Latin Charabifr.
CAR ACT is alfo the Weight us'd in weighing Diamonds
and precious Stones i and confihis of four Grains. See DIA-
MOND, and GRAIN.
Thus, the Great Afogol's Diamond is faid to weigh 279
Caratls. Thefe Grains are fomewhat lefs heavy thanthofe
us'd in Gold, &;c. In this Sente, the Word is fuppos'd to
be deriv'd from the Greek XseyTiop, a Fruit which the La-
tins call Siliqua, and we Carab-bean ; each of which may
weigh about four Grains of Wheat : whence the Latin Si-
liqua has alfo been us'd for a Weight of four Grains.
CARAITES, a Seat among the antient qews; where-
of there are fill fome fubfiffing in Poland, Rujiia, Con-
frantinoplC, Cairo, and other Places of the Levant: Somtc.
call them Carraini ; others Carrei, and Caraite.
Leon de Modenza, a Rabbin of Venice, obfervet, that
of all the Herefies among that People, before the Deftruc-
tion of the Temple, there is none now left but that-of the
Carraini; a Name deriv'd from Micra, which fignifies
the pure Text of the Bible; becaufe of their keeping to
the Pentateuch, obferving it to the Letter, and rejecing
all Interpretation, Paraphrafe, and Conflitution of the Rab-
bins.  Aben Efra, and fome other Rabbins, treat the Ca-
raites as Sadducees; but Leon de 7uda calls them, more
accurately, Sadducees reform'd; in regard they believe the
Immortality of the Soul, Paradife, Hell, Refurreflion, Fec.
which the antient Sadducees deny'd. He adds, however, that
they were doubtlefs originally real Sadducees, and fprung
from among them: But M. Simon, with more probability,
fuppofes them to have rifen hence, That the more know-
ing among the [etws, oppofing the Dreams and Reveries
of the Rabbins, and u fng the pure Text of Scripture to
refute their groundless Traditions, they had the Name
Carraim given them; which fignifies as much as the bar-
barous Latin, Scriptuarii, i. e. People attach'd to the
Text of Scripture. The other ye-ws give them the odious
Name Sadducees, from their Agreement with thofe Se&a-
ries on the Head of Traditions. See SADDUCEES.
Scaliger, Vofius, and Spanheim, rank the Caraites among
the Sabeans, Magi, Mlanichees, and Muffulmen, but by mif-
take: Wolykanq, Fabricius, &c. fay, the Sadducees and Ef-
feni were call'd Caraites, in oppofition to the Pharifees:
others take them for the Docors of the Law, fo often
mention'd in the Gofpel: But thefe are all Conjedures.
grofe.phus and Philo make no mention of them; which
Thews 'em to be more modem than either of thofe Authors.
In all probability, this Se&r was not form'd till after the
Colleaqion of the fecond Part of the Talmud, or the Ge-
mara; perhaps not till after the conmpiling of the Mifchna
in the I fd Century. The Caraites ttem elves, pretend to
be the Remains of the ten Tribes led captive by Salma-
* ffar. Wolfius, from the Memoirs of Mardocheus, a
Caraite, refers their Origin to a Malfacre among the
7ewAL Doetors, under Alexander 7jannus, their   Bi
about too Years before, Chrift: For Simeon, Son of Sche  ,
and the Queen's Brother, making his Efcape into Egyp.,
there forg d his pretended Traditions; and at his Rewrn
to 7erufalem, publifh'd his Vifions; interf'perfing the Law
T  t                 after
C A R
I
g


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