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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

C - Capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)


Page 149


4~  i k  .               1u,   ,
I ;:         .     \   I   l  .U  ALL        1x1.                       
    F          I
awn chiefy fror thit of St.l~e-VdWl,
t the Cleric Life. In this were pre-
:, Habrit, ec. There was a fecond
at the Requeff of Charlemaigne, by
ven'd at Aix la Cit7ecle, on account of
I composd of Extra~es from the Pa-
tners and Csouncils.
C&NNONs Regular, are Canons that fill live in Commu-
Bity; and who, like Religious, have; in procefs of Time,
to the Prafice of their Rules, Added the folemn Profeffi-
bn of Vows : They are called Regulars, to diflinguih
them from thofe Canons Who abandon living in Communi-
ty + and at the fame time, the Obfervance of the Canons
Miaade gas the Rule of the Clergy, for the Maintenance of
-Re antient Dbiciplie. See REGULAR.
Canons fubflifed in their Simplicity till the XIth Cen-
t ury when fome of them fepararing from the Community,
took with them the Name of Canons, oracephalous Priefis,
becaufe they declin'd to live in Community with the Bifhop;
nnd thofe who were left, thenceforth acquir'd the Deniomina-
tion of Canons Regular. The Regulars have adopted mnodf
bf the Profeflions of the Rule of St. Aguflin. 'Tis dif-
puted to which Clafs the Canons Regular belong, whether
fouthe Clergy or the Religious; both the Cleric and Mo-
Iuflic State being united in 'eti. The Point of Priority and
Precedence is hotly contefled, both between the Regular
Canons and the Priefls; and the Regular Canons; and fim-
pie Monks: The double Capacity of the Canons, is the
foundation of this Controverfy.
CANONS Secular, or Lay Canons are fuch among the
Laity, as have been admitted, out of Honour and Refped,
into fome Chapters of Canons; fuch are the Couifts ofdAn-
jol, in the Church of St. Martin de Aormrs; the Kings of
France, of St. Hlilary in Poifiers, &c. the Emperor, of
St. Peters, &c.
d ICANONESS, in the RoMr   Church, a Maid who enjoys a
Prebend, af&eaed, by the Foundation, to Maids; without
being oblig'd to renounce the World, or make any Vows:
There are few of thefe, except in Flanders and Germany:
They are rather look'd upon as a Seminary and Retreat
of Girls for Marriage, than an Engagement fbr the Service
bf God.
CANONESSEs of St. Auguflin, are a kind of Religious,
who follow the Rules of St. Auguflin; of which there are
iarious Congregations. See ArGUSTINS.
CANONRY, or CANONATE, the Benefice fill'd by a Ca-
Wzon. The Canonate is diffinguifh'd from Prebend, in that
the Prebend may fubfifl witlout the Canonate, whereas
the Canonate is infeparable from the Prebend: 'Tis to the
Canonate, not the Prebend, that the Right of SuEfrages
and other Privileges are annex'd. See PREBEND.
*re proper Senfe, is a Law, or Rule of
ne; and particularly, a Decree of a
Decifions of Matters of Religion ; or
lity and Difcipline of a Church, made
reneral, National, or Provincial; as,
ouncil of Nice, of Trent, &c. See
N Law. !
arious Colleaions of the Canons of the
I four principal ones, each ampler than
The firfl, according to UJher, 4. D.
hofe of the firif Occumenical Council,
il ones: They were but i64 in num-
yJius Pxiguus, in the Year 52o, ad-
the Apotiles, and thofe of the other
'he Greek Canons, in this fecond Col-
ofe of the Council of Calcedon; to
hofe of the Council of Sardica, and
The fourth and laft Collection, comes
:ond Council of Nice; and 'tis on this
'naras have commented.
ifpute about the Apotlolical Canons,
Clement. Yiellarmin, B~aroni us, &c.
be genuine Canons of the Apofiles:
,Beveridge, &c. take them  to be
i, who were the ACoC0l1s Difciples in
tury. Daille, &c. maintain them to
6oe Heretick in the VIth Century.
allow 85 of them, and the Latins
for the authoriz'd Catalogue of the
SCRIPTURE, BIBLE, TESTAMENT.
r Cataicgve of the Books of the Old
by the  ewis, and is ordinarily attri-
his is the'Canon ailow'd to have been
Nive Church, tiB the Council of 1'rent;
7cro*, confifled of no more than zz
ncil e06*9gd the Canon very confide-
the w~c hich we catl Apocryphal;
fe7' tP bW. jtciv'd as vBoohs of H~oly
of A nathe@   an  bi~ ig artainr   of
tnt~ts, in  defe c  of ditis  Ca,0# , lity
49 8) ^C AN
that 'tis the; ;ame with that of the Council f Vypp; bfld iii
393, and with that of the third Cduncil; at which were
prefent47 Bifhops, and among the refi, St. Azgutjn ; who
declar'd they receiv'd it from their Fathers. Some of the
Fathers difiinguilh the infpir'd Writings into three Clafeh"s,
Proto-Catzonical, Deutero-Canonical, and Apocryphal See
DExTERO-CANONICAL, and APOCRYPHAL.
PafcI7al CANON, a Table of the Moveable Feafts, fhew*
ing the Day of Eafter, and the other Feafts depending on
it, for a Cycle of 1 9 Years. The RPaflbal Canon is fuppos'd
to be the Calculation of En.Jebius of Cefarea, and to have
been done by Order of the Council of Nice. See EASTERk'
FEAST, CYCLE, &C.
CANON is alfo us'd in fome Orders of Religious, for the;
Book that contains their Rules, Conflitutions, &ic. Canon,
again, is us'd for the Catalogue of Saints acknowledged and
canoniz'd in the Rompil Church. See SAINT, and CANO-
NIZATION.
CANON is alfo ufed, by way of Excellence, in the Romi/h
Church, for the fecret Words of the Mafs, from the Pre-
face to the Pater; in the Middle of which the PriePt makes
the Confecration: The common Opinion is, that the Ca-
non commences with, 7e igitur, &c. The People are to be
on their Knees, hearing the Canon; and are to rehearfe it
to themfelves, fo as not to be heard. The Canon is pre-
tended to have been put into its prefent Form by St..7erom,
by Order of Pope Siricius. The Council of Blrent declare
the Canon of the Mafs to have been fram'd by the Church;
and to be compos'd of the Words of Jefus Chrifl, his Apo-
files, and the firfc Popes: Some call it Affion.
CANON, in Mufick, is a Rule, or Method of determin-
ing the Intervals of Notes. See INTERVAL.
'Ptolemy, rejefting the Ariftoxenian Way of meafuring
the Intervals in Mufick, by the Magnitude of a Tone,
(which was fuppos'd to be form'd by the Diffirence be-
tween a Diapente and a !Diatefferon) thought that mufical
Intervals lhould be diflinguiffi'd, according to the Ratio's
or Proportions which the Sounds terminating thofe Intervals
bear to one another, when confider'd according to their de-
gree of Acutenefs or Gravity; which, before Ariftoxenus,
Ngas the old Pythagorean Way. He therefore made the
Diaptafon confift in a double Ratio; the fDiapente in a
Sefquialteral ; the fDiatejfaron, in a Sefquitertian, and the
Tone it felf in a Sefquioftave; and all the other Intervals,
according to the Proportion of the Sounds that terminate
them: Wherefore, taking the Canon, (as 'tis call'd) for a
determinate Line of any length, he {hews how this Canon
is to be cut accordingly, fo that it may reprefent the refpec-
tive Intervals: and this Method anfwers exaaly to Experi-
ment, in the different Lengths of mufical Chords. From
this Canon, Ptolemy and his Followers, have been call'd
Canonici; as thofe of Ariftoxenus, were call'd Mufici. See
MUs ICK.
- CANON in Trigonometry, and Algebra, a general Rule
for the Solution of all Cafes, of a like Nature with the pre-
fent Inquiry: Thus, every lafi Step of an Equation is a
Canon; and, if turri'd into Words, becomes a Rule to folve
all Queffions of the fame Nature with that propos'd. For
the Confiruffion of the Canon of Sines; fee SINEs. For
Tangents, fee TANGENT. For Logarithms, fee LOGA-
R1T11m, SC.
Natural CANON of Triangles, is the Canon of Sines,
Tangents, and Secants taken together: So called, becaufe
ferving principally for the Solution of Triangles. See TRI-
ANGLE.
Artificial CANON, is the Canon of Artificial Sines, Tan-
gents, Oc. i. e. of Cofines, Cotangents, Eegc. See COSINE,
COTANGENT, FEg)C.
CANON Lax, a Collection of Ecclefiaflical Statutes, Con-
fliturions, Decifions, and Maxims, taken from the antient
Councils, the Decrees of Popes, and the Reports and Re-
folutions of the Primitive Fathers. See LAW.
The Canon Law that obtain'd throughout the Weff till
the XIth Century, was the Colle&ion of Canons made by
fSiouyfius Exzgzeus, in  zo  the Capitalaries of Cbarle-
maigne, and the Decrees o? the Popes, from Siricius to
Anafalaflus. No regard was had to any thing not compris'd
in there; and the D7rench fill maintain the Rights of the
Gallican Church, to confifi in their not being oblig'd to ad-
mit any thing elfe, but to be at Liberty to rejed all Inno-
vations made in the Canonical 7urifprudence fince that
Compilation; as well as all Papal Decrees before Sir cius.
Indeed, between the VIIth and XlIth Centuries, the Ca-
non Law was mix'd and confiounded with the Papal De-
crees, from St. Clement to Siricius ; which till then had
been unknown: This gave occafion to a new Reform, or
Body of the,, Canon Law ; which is the Collcdion l01
extant, under the Title of 7tie Concordance of :h r
tg Canons, mrade in I R   t, by Gratiat, a *Qdifin
Monk, frmTextff Scripture, Councils, a4niirets
f the Fathers, in the feveral Points of Ec64"ical Polity.
This Vork he divided according to Wjed'Aiof Matters,
not


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