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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

C - capillary,   pp. 137-152 PDF (20.2 MB)


Page 148


( I48 )
Tkt e Names of the feveral Canyzons, their Length, their
'Weighi, and that of their galls, as they obtain among us,
ire as in the following Table.
NAMES of         Weight of Weight Length
NAMES of CANNON.         an Iron   of the  of the
Ball'      Cannon. Cannon.:
Cannon Royal           48 lib.    8000 lib. z Fet
!Demni-Cannon large    36         6oo     12.
tDemi-Cannon ordinary  32         5600    1 2
ZDemi-Cannon leaft     30         5400    1 1
Culverin largef        zo0        4800 I:
Ctflverin ordinary     17 lib. 5 oz. 4500  12
Culverin leaft         I 5        4000    it
!Demi-Culverin ordlnafy  o   II   z700    11
Demi-Culverin leadf     9         2000     0
Saker ordinary          6         1500    10
Saker leaft             4    22   1400 8
Minion largeJ1          3    12   1000     8
Minion ordinrO          3          800     7
Falcon                             7 50    7
FalconiCt               t          40o    6
Rabinet                        8    300   5. 6ig'1.
B afe                         5    200   4. 6
The grearefi Range of a Cannon, is ordinarily Ax'd at an
Elevation of 450. Dr. Halley fhews it to be at 444. See
PROJECT. M. S. Yulien adjufis the Ranges of the feveral
Pieces of Cannon, from the Weight of the Ball they bear:
the Charge of Gun-pouder being always fuppofed in a fub.
duple Ratio of the Weight of the Ball: Thus,
W eiga of-ofHorizontal Greateft  o f Horizontal Greateft
a leaden  Range.  Range.a leaden   Range.   Range.
Bill.                     Ball.
; b.  6oo PaceJ.  6000        J  450     5000
z4     1700       6000      8       400     1500
16   800 8oao                         o   I lso0
The fame Author adds, that a Ball thrown to the Dif-
tanceof6oo Paces, finks 9, lo, II, Iz, nay, 13 Foot with-
in ground. For the Method of caftingCannons, fee FOUNDRY.
For the Metal of Cannons, 'tis 'either Iron, or, which is
more ufual, a Mixture of Copper, Tin, and Brafs: the
Tin is added to the Copper, to make the Metal more
denfe and compa&: So that the better or heavier the Cop-
per is, the lefs Tin is requir'd. Some to 0oo Pounds of
Copper, add To of Tin, and 8 of Brafs: Others, IO of
Tin, 5 of Brafs, and to of Lead. B raumius defcribes a
Method of making Cannon of Leather, on occalon : And
'tis certain the S-weeds made ufe of fuch in the long War of
the laft Century; but thefe burfi too eafily to have much
efFed. 'Tis found by Experience, that of two Cannon of
equal Bore, but different Lengths; the longer requires a
greater Charge of Pouder than the lhorter, in order to reach
the fame Range. The ordinary Charge of a Cannon, is to
have the Weight of its Gun-pouder half that of its Ball.
After each thirty Difcharges, the Cannon is to be cool'd,
with two Pints of Vinegar, mix'd with four of Water, pour'd
into the Barrel; the Touch-hole being firft flopp'd.
Cannons are made Cylindrical, that the Motion of the
Ball might not be retarded In its Paffage ; and that the
Pouder, when on Fire, might not flip between the Ball and
the Surface of the Cannon, which wou'd hinder its effe&.
n/cfius would have the Cannon always decreafe, as it goes
towards the Mouth or Orifice: in regard, the Force of-the
Pouder always decreases, in proportion to the Space thro
which it is expanded. The new Cannons, after the Spa-
,ifvf manner, have a Cavity, or Chamber at bottom of the
Barrel, which helps their Effe&. A Cannon is found to
recoil two or three Paces after Explofion ; which fome ac-
count for from the Air's rufhing violently into the Cavity
as foon as it is difcharg'd of the Ball : but the real Caufe,
is, the Pouder's aaing equally on the Breech of the Can-
non, and the Ball. See MORTAR, GUN, BOMB-PROJECT,
GvN-POUDER, SC.
Larrey makes Brafs Cannon the Invention of 57 Otwen;
and fays, the firfi known were in England, in I 3 3 5. Can-
nons, however, he owns, were known before; and obferves,
that at the Battel of Cre7i, in 2346, there were fivePieces
of Cannon in the Englijh Army ; which were the firfi that
had been feen in France: And Mezeray adds, that King
Ed-ward firuck Terror into the French Army, by five or
fix Pieces of Cannon; it being the firfi time they had feen
fuch thundering Machines. The firfi Cannons were call'd
Bombards, from' the Latin bombus; by reafon of the
Noife. The Word Cannon, Menage derives from the Ita-
lian Canone, an Augmentative of Canna; in regard, a Can-
non is long, fireight, and hollow, like a Came.
CANOE, a little Vefel, or Boat, us'd by the Indians,
*made all of one Piece, of the Trunk of a Tree hollowd. The
C A 1
Savages frequently make 'em, of Bark, chiefly that of th
Birch-Tree; yet big enough to hold four or five Perfid
See BOAT.
CANON, a Perfon who pofe.tes a Prebend, or Revenue
allotted for the Performance of Divine Service, in a Cathe-
dral, or Collegiate Church. Canons are of no great Anti-
quity:  Pafquier obferves, that the Name Canon was nqt
known before Cbarlemaign: at leaf, the firff we hear of;
are in Gregory dc flours, who mentions a College of q
nons, inflituted by Baudiin XVI. Archbithop of that City,
in the Time of Clotharius I. For, antiently, Canons were
only Priefts, or inferior Ecclefiaflicks, who liv'd in Com-
m#~unity; refiding by the Cathedral Church, to afflji the
BifhQps; depending entirely on their Will, Supported by
the Revenues of the Bifhoprick; and living in -the fame
Houfe, as his Domeflicks, or Counfellors, Cc. They even
inherited his Moveables; till the Year 8i6; when this was
prohibited by the Council of Aix la Chapelle. B8y degrees,
thefe Communities of Priells, Ihaking off their Dependance,
form'd feparate Bodies ; whereof the Bifhops, howeve?,
were fill Heads. In the Xth Century, there were Com,
munities or Congregations of the fame kind, eflablilh'd
even in Cities, where there were no Bifhops : Thefe were
call'd Collegiates; in regard, they ufed the Terms Congre-
gation or College indifferently: The Name Chapter, now
given to thefe Bodies, is much more modern. Under the
fecond Race of the French Kings, the Canon or Collegiate
Life, had fpread it felf all over the Country; and each
Cathedral had its Chapter, diflindt from the refd of thy
Clergy. But they were not yet deffin'd to a Life fo eafy as
now-a-days. They had the Name Canon! from the Greek
wSeve', which fignifies three diffierent things, a Aule; a
TPenfion, orfix'd Revenue to live on i and a Catalcgue, or Ma-
tricula. Hence, fome fay, they were call'd Canons, by reafon
of the fPenflon or Prebend'; (whence fome alfo call 'em Spor-
tulantes Praires :) Others fay, they were call'd Canons, be-
caufe oblig'd to live according to Canonical Rules and Infli-
tutions, which were given 'em; and others, as M. de Mar-
ca, becaufe their Names were inferted in the Matriczula, or
Catalogue of the Cathedral. In time, the Canons freed
themfelves from their Rules, the Obfervance relax'd, and,
at length, they ceas'd to live in Community yet fifl form'd
Bodies; pretending to other Functions befides the Celebra-
tion of the Common Office in the Churc6, yet affuming the
Rights of the rell of the Cjergy making themselves a
neceTary Council of the Bifhop; taking upon them  the
Adminifiration of the See during a Vacancy, and the Elecd
tion of a Bilhop to fupply it. There are even fome Chap-
ters exempt from the JTurifdiiion of the Bilhop, and own-
ing no Head but their Dean. After the Example of Ca-
thedral Chapsers, Collegiate ones alfo continu'd to form
Bodies, after they had abandon'd living in Community.
Antient CANONS, and thofe fill fubring in the Rosmj
Church, are of various Kinds; as, Cardinal Canons, which
are thofe attach'd, and, as the Latins call it, Incardinati
to a Church, as a Prieft is to a Parilh. Domicellary Ca-
nons, were young Canons, who not being in Orders, had no
Right in any particular Chapters. Expetative Canons,
were fuch as without having any Revenue or-Prebend, had
the Titles and Dignities of Canons, a Voice in the Chap-
ter, and a Place in the Choir; till fuch time as a Prebend
Thould fall. Foreign Canons, were fuch as did not officiate
in the Canonries to which they belong'd: To thefe were
oppos'd Manflonary Canons, or Canons Refidentiary. Ho-
eorary Canons, are the fame with Lay Canons: In a Ma-
nufcript Ordinary, at Rouen, is mention made of Canons qf
thirteen AMarks; which, perhaps, was the Revenue of
their Canonate. In the Church at London, were Canons
Minor, or little Canons, who officiated for the great ones.
At Lucca there are Mitred Canons. There were alfo Ca-
nons of Poverty; Canons ad Succurrendum, who were
made Canons at the Point of Death, to partake of the
Prayers of the Chapter. Tertiary Canons, or thofe who
had only the third Part of the Revenues of the Caizonate.
Charlemaign ordain'd, that thofe who were admitted in-
to the Cleric, that is, into the Canonic Life, (hould be
oblig'd to live Canonically, and according to the Rule pre-
fcrib'd 'em; obeying their Bilhops as Monks do their AbS
bat: By this Means it was, that the Spirit of Monachifm
became introducd into Cathedrals; for the Clerks being
ty'd to certain Rules, became half Monks; and inflead of
agplying themfelves to the Funaion of the Priefihood, 1hut
thenfelves up in Cloifters: whence the Houfes where they
refided took the Name of Monatferies, and were to be kept
inclofed  as appears by the Synodical Statutes of WIincmar,
in 874. So that there were two kinds of Monaflcries; the
one for Monks, the other for Canons. Singing, in a little
time, became their chief employ     and tis now alol i
the whole Bufineg they have left: the Bilhop- looking oat
'em as little elfe but their Chaplains.
In the VIIIth Century, S. Ckrodgand made a Rule for
the Canons, which was recci'd by 'em all,, and is fill ex-
z                       tant;
CA 14
,&s 1


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