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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Arterial - Attaching,   pp. 145-169 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 167

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The Athemai were built in form of Amphitheatres; and were
ilfo incompa&>d with Seats, which Sidus calls Cuxnef. See AM-
The two moct celebrated Athenea were that of Rom, and
that at Lions; the former of which, according to6Aureliusvfaor,
Was built by the Emperor Adrian.
The Word is Greek, and is derived from athens, a learned Ci-
ty, where many of thefe Affemblies were held; or from the
Greek Name of Pallas, 'Aj1y, Goddefs of Science; intimating
that Atheneum was a Place consecrated to Pallas, or fet a-part
for the Excrcifes over which fihe prefides.
ATHEROMA, in Medicine, a Kind of a Tumour or Swell-
ing, of a pappy Confiflence, without pain, or difcolouring the
Skin. See TUMOR.
The Atheroma is contain'd in a Cyftis or membranous Bag;
and does not give way when touched with thetFinger, nor re-
tains any dent after preffure.
The Atheroma is thus call'd from the Greek Bia, a Kind of
Pap or Pulp which the Matter of this Tumour refembles.-It is
near a-kin to the Meliceris and Steatoma; and cured like them.
AT.-LETA, in Antiquity, a Wreftler, or a throng courage-
ous Perfon, who employs himfelf in Exercifes of the Body, as
running, wreffling, and other the like Gymnic Sports, for which
the Antients had eftablifbed Prizes.  See EXERcIsE and GYM-
The Athlete lived in continual Abftinence from Pleafures, to
render themselves the more vigorous and robuft.  See ABSTI-
The Word comes from the Greek Qm"a$, of Q0, cerWo, pug-
no, I contend, I fight. See COMBAT, GLADIATOR, &C.
A I LAN 1 1, or ATLANTICA, in Antiquity, an Ifland fpoke of
by Plato and other Writers, under fome extraordinary Circum-
ftances; and render'd famous by a Controverfy among the Mo-
derns about it.
The moft diffin6t Account of this celebrated Place, is given
us in Plato's Tmexus, and Critias; which amounts, in a few Words,
to what follows.-¢c The Atlantis was a large Ifland in the We-
sthern Ocean, fituate before, or oppofite to, the Straights of
cc Gibraltar. Out of this Ifland there was an eafy Paffage into
fc fome others, which lay near a large Continent exceeding all
" Europe and Az&a. Neptune fetted in this Ifland, which he di-
ftributed among his ten Sons; to the youngeft fell the extre-
cc mity of the Ifland call'd Gadir, which in the Language of the
cc Country fignifies 'Edges5, Fertile, or abundant in Sheep.  The
Ic Defcendants of Neptuve reigned here from Father to Son, for
" a great Number of Generations, in the Order of Primoge-
cc niture. They alfo pofleffed feveral other Iflands; and pagling in-
(c to Europe and Africa, fubdued all Libya as far as Egypt, and all
cc Europe to Afa Minor. At length the Iland funk under Wa-
- ter; and for a long Time afterwards, the Sea thereabouts was
cc full of Flats and Shelves.
The learned Rudbecks, Profefor in the Univerfity of Upfal,
in an exprefsTreatife intitled, Atlantica five Manbeim, maintains,
very Itrenuoufly, that Plato's Atlantis is Sweden; and attributes
to his Country, whatever the Antients have faid of their Atlan-
tis, or Atlantic Ifland.-After the little Abridgment we have gi-
ven of Plato's Account, the Reader will be furprized to find
Sweden taken for the Atlantis; and accordingly tho' Rudbeck's
Work be full of uncornmon Erudition, the Author paffes for a
Vifionary in this Point.
Others will have America to be the Atlantis; and hence infer,
that the new World was not unknown to the Antients: But
what Plato fays, does by no means quadrate thereto.-America
Ihould rather eem to be the vail Continent beyond the Atlantis,
and the other Iflands mentioned by Plato.
Beeman, in his Hiory of Iflands, Cap. 5. advances a much
more probable Opinion than that of Ru.beck'se-The Atlantis, ac-
cording to him, was a large Island extended from  the Canaries to
the Aores; anrd thefse Ilands are the Remains thereof not fwal-
lowed up by the Sea.
The Atlantis took its Name from Alas, Neptne's elde Son,
who Succeeded hin Father in the Government thereof.
ATLANTIDESc among the Poets.       See VERGILITE.
ATLAS, in Archireoure, is a Name given to thofe Figures,
or Half-Figures of Men, fo much ufed inftead of Columans, or
Pitafters; to fupport any Member of Architeiure, as a Balcony,
or the like. See COLUMN, etc.
Thefe are otherwise call'd Telamones. See TELAMON.
ATLAS, in Anatomy, the Name of the firss VVrtebra of the
Neckd which ftupports the Head.          me VERTEBRA      and
It is fo call'd in alluyion to the celebrated Mountain Atlas, in
Africa, which is fo high, that it feems to bear the Heavens; and
to the Fable, in which, Atlas, the King of this Caoudry is haid
to hear the Heavens on his Shoulders.4
The Atlas has no fpiny A~pophyfes; becaufe the Motions of the
Head don't turn on this Vertebra, but on the fecond. As it is
obliged to turn about as often as the Head moves round, had
-there been any fpiny Apophyfe, it would have incommoded the
Motion of the Mufcles in the Excenflon of the Head.-It is alto
of a finer and firmer Texture than the other Vertebrce, and it dif.
fers further from them in that thofe receive at one End, and ard
received at the other, whereas this receives at both Extremes;
for two Eminences of the Occiput are inferted within its two
upper Cavities, which makes its Articulation with the Head; and
at the fame time, two other Eminences of the fecond Vertebra
are received within its two lower Cavities, by means of which
they are articulated together.
ATLAS is alfo a Title given to Books of univerfal Geographyi
containing Maps of the known Parts of the World; as if they
were view'd from the Top of that celebrated Mountain, which
the Antients efteemed the higheft in the World; or rather on
Account of their holding the whole World like Atlas.
'Wte have alfo Atlas's of particular Parts, Sea-Atlas's, &c.-
The firfi Work under this Denomination was the Great Atlas of
ATMOSPHERE, ATMOSPIIERA, an Appendage of our
Earth; confifting of a thin, fluid, elaftic Subitance, call'd Air
furrounding the Terraqueous Globe, to a confiderable Heighth.
By Atmofphere is ufually understood the whole Mals. or Affem,
blage of ambient Air: Though, among the more accurate Wri-
ters, the Atmojphere is reftrain'd to that Part of the Air next the
Earth, which receives Vapours and Exhalations; and is termina-
ted by the Refra&ion of the Sun's Light. See REFRACTION.
The further or higher Spaces, though perhaps not wholly dent
flitute of Air, are tuppofed to be poftets'd by a finer Subitance
call'd Ether; and are hence denominated the Atherial Region, or
Space. See AETHER, HEAVEN, &C.                i
A late eminent Author confiders the Atmofphere as a large
Chymical Veael, wherein the Matter of all the Kinds of fublu-
nary Bodies is copioufly floating; and thus expofed to the con-
tinual Adion of that immenfe Furnace the Sun; whence innu-
merable Operations, Sublimations, Separations, Compofitions,
Digeffions, Fermentations, Putrefa6tions, 6,c.  See CHYMIs-
For the Nature, Conflitution, Properties, Ufes, Diverfities, &c.
of the ATMOSPHERE, fee the Article AIR.
We have a large Apparatus of Infiruments, contrived for in-
dicating and meafuring the State and Alterations of the AtmofJ
pbere; as, Barometers, Thermometers, Hygrometers, Manometers,
Anemometers, &c. fee each under its proper Article, BAROME,
The .dtmoJphere intinuates itfelf into all the Vacuities of Bo-
dies; and thus becomes the great Spring of moft of the Mutati-
ons here below; as Generation, Corruption, Diffolution, &c.
OTis one of the great Difcoveries of tthe modern Philo-
fophers* that the feveral Motions attributed by the Antients to
a Fuga-vacui, are really owing to the Preffure of the Atmojpberr.
Weight of the ATMOSPHERE.
Organical Bodies are peculiarly affeited by this Preffure: To
this, Plants owe their Vegetation, and AnimJs their Refpiration,
Circulation, Nutrition, &ac. See PLANT, ANIMAL, VEGETA-
To this alfo we owe feveral confiderable Alterations in the
animal Oeconomy, with regard to Health, Life. Dileafie, &c.
See HEALTH, &c.
And hence, a Calculus of the precife Quantity of this Preffure,
becomes a Point worthy of Attention.
Our Bodies, then, are equally prefs'd on by the incumbent At-
mefphere; and the Weight they futtain is equal to a Cylinder of
Air, whofe Bafe is equal to the Superficies of our Bodies.-.Now,
a Cylinder of Air of the Height of the Atmofphere, is equal to a
Cylinder of Water of the fame Bafe, and 35 Foot high; or a
Cylinder of Mercury, z9 Inches high; as appears from the Tor-
ricellian Experiments; as alfo from the Height to wh ch Water
afcends in Pumps, Syphons, &c.  See I ORRICELLIAN.  See
al1O PUMP, SYPHON, &c.
Hence it follows, that every Foot fiquare of the Superficies of
our Bodies, is preffed upon by a Weight of Air equal to 35 cu-
-bical Feet of Water; and a cubical Foot of Water, being found,
by Experiment to weigh 76 Pound Troy Weight, therefore the
Compais of a Foot lquare upon the Superficies of our Bodies,
fuftains a quantity of Air equal to 2660 Pound: For 76+35-
2660; and So many Foot lquare as the Superficies of our Body
contains, fo many times 266o Pound does that Body bear.
Hence, if the Superficies of a Man's Body, contain IS fquare
Feet, which is pretty near the Truth, he will fuftain a Weight
equal to 39900 Pound, for 2660+X 5=39900, which is above
13Tun for; the ordinary L~oad.
The Difference of the Weight of the Air which our Bodies
fuftain at one time more than   at   another, is alfo very
greate--he whole Weight of Air which preffes upon our Bo-
dies whe    the Mercury is higheft in the Barometer, is equal to
39Q ooPounds. Whence, the Difference between the greaten
and the leaft preffure of Air upon our Bodies, may be prOV'4 to
be cq4 to 3982 Pounds.

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