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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Arterial - Attaching,   pp. 145-169 PDF (19.4 MB)


Page 165


A S T
( '45 )
A S Y
EARTH, PLANET, ORBIT, &C. See alo SPHERE, GLOBE,
&c.
The modem Ad]ronomy is delivered in Ceperxicus fix Books of
6etial Revolutions, publiffied about the Year I566; wherein,
by retrieving Pythagoras's and Philolas's Dogma of the Motion
of the Earth, he laid the Foundation of a julter Syftem.-Kep-
rs Commentaries of the Motions of Mars, publiflied in 1609;
wherein, in lieu of the circular Orbits admitted by all former
afironomers, he propofed the elliptic Theory; which, in his Epi-
tome of the Coperxican Adfronom, publithed in i635, he applied
to all the Planets.-Ih. Bolliads'sl jfironomia Philelaica, pub-.
lified in x6+y, wherein he endeavoured to amend Kepler's Theo-
ry, and render the Calculus more Exa6t and Geometrical: Some
Errors committed by Bullialdns were pointed out by Dr. Seth.
Ward, in his Insuiry into the Philolaic dfronomy, published in
1653; and correded by hinmfelf in his Foundations of the Phi-
loaic Afironomy more clearly explain'd, in i657.-Ward's dftro-
noria Georetrica, publifhed in I 656; wherein a Geometrical Me-
thod is propofed of computing the Planets Motions; though not
confident with the true Laws of their Motions efcablifhed by
Kepler. The fame was propofed the Year following by the Count
de Pagan. The Truth is, Kepler himfelf does not feem to have
been ignorant thereof ; but rather chofe to fet it afide, as finding
it contrary to Nature.-Vn. Wing's Aflronomia Britannica, pub-
lth'd in 1669; wherein, going on Buliialdus Principles, he gives
jult Examples of all the Precepts in pracical Afironomy, well ac-
cornmodated to the Capacity of Learners -Newton's Aflronomia
Britannica, published in i657; and Street's JfIronomia Carolina,
in i661; both upon Wvfd s Hypothefis.
In Ricciolus's ihnazgeJlum Maginm, publiflied in i65 r, we have
the feveral Hypcthefei of all the Aftronomers, anrient as well as mo-
derni.- And in Dr. Gregory's Elementa A/lronomie Phyfic & Geome-
tricge, in 17 02, the whole modern Aifronomy, as founded on the
Discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Sir ifaac Newton.-The Mar-
row of the new Afliroxomi is alfo laid down by Whiflon, in his
Prsele sion. Ijlronornice, in I 707.-For Novices in the Art, Mer-
cator's Inflituticrnes Afironomice, publifhed in 1676; which contains
the whole Doatrine, both according to the Antients and Mo-
derns; and Dr. Keills Infrodusfiio ad VeramAft ronomiam, in 1718,
which only takes in the Modern, are the belt calculated.
ASTRONOMICAL, 1omething that relates roglironomy. See
ASTRONOMY.
ASTRONOMICAL    Ob'ervations.  See CStLESTIAL Obferva-
tions.
The Afrroxomical Obfervations of the Antients, among which
thofe of Hipparchus make a principal Figure, are preferved by
Ptolemy in his Almageft. See ALMAGEST.
In the Year 88o, Albategnius, a Sarazex, applied hitnfelf to the
makingof Obfervations: In 1457, Regiomontans undertook the
Province at Norimberg; and his Difciples J. Werxerus, and Ber.
Waltherus, continued the fame from 1475 to 1504. Their Gb-
fervarions were publithed together in I544.-In 1509, Copernicus,
and after him the Landgrave of Hefe, with his Affiftants Roth-
mann;s and B) rgiwvs, oblerved; and atter them Tyho, at Uranibourg,
from  158z to i6oi.-All the Obfervations hitherto rehearfed,
together with Tycho's Apparatus of Inflruments, are contain'd in
the Hifloria Ceelefiis, publithed in 1672, by Order of the Empe-
ror Ferdinand.-S oon after, Hevelus, with a fill more magnificent
and better contrived Apparatus of nfIitruments, described in his Ma-
china Cx'leftis, began a Courfe of Obfervations. It is obje6ted to
him that he only ufed plain Sights. and could never be brought
to take the Advantage of Telefcopic ones; whichoccafionedDr.
hook to write Animadverfions on Heveli~s's Initruments, printed
in i674; wherein he defpifes them on account of their Inaccu-
racy: But Dr. Hally, who at the Inftance of the Royal Society
went over to Dantzick in the Year i679, to infpe&t his Inftru-
ments ; approved of their Juftnefs, as well as of the Obfervati-
ons made with them.
Jer. Horrox, and Wll. Craltree, two of our own Countrymen,
are famous for their Obfervations from the Years I635 to I645.
-They were followed by Flamfteed, Caffini the Father and Son,
Halley, de la Hire, Roemer, and Kirchius.-See furtber xnder the
Articles OBSERVATORY, CATALOGUE, &C.
ASTRONOMICAL Tables,    I
ASTRONOMICAL kmadrait,
ASTRONOMICAL Telefcope,  I
ASTRONOMICAL Calendar,    s see.
ASTRONOMICAL Hail,,
ASTRONOMICAL Month)
ASTRONOMICAL rear,        1
ASTRONOMICAL Charaders,&c. ,
Cvfironomical TABLE.
I  roXMical QUADRANT.
vzomnical TELESCOPE.
,A(rOn0mical CALENDAR.
l Afiromical HOURS
. dftroxikal MONTH.
Aeoxonical YEAR.
AflrOn CHARACTERS, e&C.
ASTRONOMICAL Place, of a Star or Planer, is its Longitude,
or Place in the Ecliptick reckoned from the beginning Aries, in
Confequentia, or according to the natural Order of the Signs. See
PLACE, LONGITUDE, gel.
AsTRONOMICAL Tfme. See AftroomicalTIME.
ASTRONOMICALS, a Name ufed by fome Writers for
Sexagefimal Fracions; on account of their ufe in AJtrontemal
Calculations. See SEXAGESIMAL.
ASYLUM, orAtytuvm, aSan6tuary, or Place of Refuge and
Proteetion, where a Criminal who fhelters himfelt is deem'd
inviolable, and not to be touch'd by any Officer of Juftice. St*
REFUGE, PRIVILEGE, &C.
The Word Afylum is Latin: Servius derives it from the Greek
£rvAu; which is compounded of the privativeParticle , and rav ,
I takeout, I draw, becaufe no Perfon cou'd be taken out of an
Afyluw without Sacrilege. See SACRILEGE.
The firft Afylums were eftablifls'd at Athext, by the Defcen-
dents of Hercules, to (helter themfelves from the fury of his Ene-
mies. See HERACLIDES.
The Arars, Statues, and Tombs of Hero's, were, antiently,
the ordinary Retreat of thofe who found themfelves aggriev'd by
the Rigour of the Laws, or opprefi'd by the Violence of Ty-
rants: But of all others, Temples were held the molt facred and
inviolable Refuge. It was 1uppofed that the Gods took upon
them to punish the Criminal who thus threw hirnfelf upon
them; and it had been a great Impiety in Man to take Vengeance
out of the Hands of the Immortals.  See ALTAR, TEMPLE,
TOMB, STATUE, &C.
The Ifraelites had their Cities of Refuge, which were of God's
own Appointment; where the Guilty, who had not committed
any deliberate Crime, found Safety and Proteclion.-As to the
Heathens, they allowed Refuge and Impunity, even to the vileifl
and mofl: flagrant Offenders, for the fake of peopling their Ci-
ties; and it was by this means, and with fuch Inhabitants, that
Thebes, Athens, and Rome, were firil ftock'd.-We even read of
Afyjluns at Lyons and Venne among the antient Gaels; and there
are fome Cities in Germany which fill preferve the antient
right of hilfyum.
Hence, on the Medals of feveral antient Cities, particularly ins
Syria, we meet the Intcription, OATYAOI, to which is added,
IEPAI.   For Inftance, TITOY IEPAX XAI AXYAO1 IAOflNO.g
IEPAi KAI AITAOY.-    This Quality of AJjluazz was given them,
according to M. Spanheini, in regard of their Temples, and of
the Gods revered by them.
The fame Qualities has alro been given to Deities: Thus Di-
axa of Ephefus is call'd araAO.-Add, that the Camp form'd by
Romulus and Remus, and which afterwards became a City, was
firfl call'd A(f/um; and a Temple was therein erected to the God
Xfyleeus,  i acoe
The Emperors Honorius and Theodo/ius granting thefe Immu-
nities to Church-yards, the Bishops and Monks laid hold of a cer-
tain Tra6t or Territory, without which they fix'd the Bounds of
the Secular Jurifdiation: And fo well did they manage their Pri-
vileges, that Convents, in a little time, became next a-kin to
Fortieffes; where the moft glaring Villains were in Safety, and
braved the Power of the Magiftrate. See CHURCH. rard
Thefe Privileges, at length, were extended not only to the
Church-yards, but allb to the Bifhop's Houfes, whence the Cri-
minal cou'd not be removed without a legal Affurance of Life,
and an entire Remiflion of the Crime.-The Reafon of the Ex-
tenfion was, that they might not be obliged to live altogether in
the Churches, &c. where feveral of the Occafions of Life cou'd
not be decently done.
But, at length, the Afyla, or Sancuaries, were fDripp'd of mofl
of their Immunities, in regard they ferved to make Guilt and
Libertinage more daring and bold-faced. In England, particular-
ly, they were entirely abolished. See the Article SANCTUARY.
ASYMMETRY, ASYMMETRIA, a want of Symmetry or
Proportion. See SYMMETRY.
In Mathemnaticks, the Term is particularly ufed for what we
more ufually call Incommevji7rabiibty; which is when between two
Quantities there is no common Meafure: As, between the Side,
and Diagonal of a Square.-In Numbers, furd Roots, as V/ 2,
&c. are incoznm'mfurable to rational Numbers.  See INCOM-
MENSURABLE, SQUARE, SURD, eC.
The Word is derived from the privative Particle a, fwy, and
bS^a, q. d. 'without Meafure.
ASYMPTOTE, in Geometry, a Line which continually ap-
proaches nearer and nearer to another, yet will never meet there-
with, though indefinitely prolonged. See LINE.
The Word is compounded of the privative Particle a, rw, with,
and Ahu, I fall;  nd   o Incient, orwhich neverineer.-Some
Latin Authors call them Intal2e,
Bertinss gives us divers forts of Afymptotes; fome Strait, a-
thers Curve; fome Concave, others Convex, &c. and further,
propoles an Inftrument to defcribe them withal.-Though, in
fLriznefs, the Term   fymptotes feems appropriated to right
Lines.
AJfimpttes, then, are properly right Lines, which approach
nearer and nearer to fome Curve, of which they are faid to be
the dymptotes; but which, though they and their Curve, were
indefinitely contined, would never meet. See CURVE.
fymptetes may be conceived as Tangents to their Curves at
an ifnite Dilance. See TANGENT.
Two Curves are alfo faid to be ..4fymptotical, when they thus
continually approach, without a poffibility of meeting-Thus
two Parabols, whofe Axos are in the fame right Line, are Afpf.
totial to one another.
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