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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Analecta - Antimony,   pp. 83-109 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 105

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and is-complained of by fome of our Politer Writers as an
bue much to the difadvanrtage of our Language, tending
to disfigure it, and turn a tenth part of our fmootheft Words
into Glufers of Conf'onants: which is the more inexcufable,
in that the want of Vowels has been the general Complaint
of thebefi Writers.
Another Irregularity relates to the preter Tenfe, and paf-
five Participle-Thu give, if it were regular, or formed
according to the Rule, would make lived in the preter
Tenfe, and the paffive Participle: whereas it makes gave in
the preter Tenfe, and given 'in the paflive Participle.
ANOMALISTICAL Xear, in Afironomy, called alfo
periodical rear, is the fpace of time wherein the Earth
paffes tho'b her Orbit. See YEAR..
The ./nomaliflical, or common Year, is fomewhat great-
er than the Tropical Year i by reafon of the prXceffion of
the Equfnox. See TROPJCAL.
ANs-OMALY, in Grammar, the Irregularity of Formation
or Conjugation, obferved in feveral Verbs. SeeqANAM ALous.
ANOMALY, in Afironomy, is the Diflance ofa Planet from
the Aphelion or Apogee i or an irregularity in the Motion
of aPinet, whereby it deviates from.the Aphelion or
7Kcper diftinguifies three kinds of Anomalies; Mean,
Eccntric and true.
A.eMa  or Simple ANOMALY in the antient AtIronomny,
is the Iifiance of a Planet's mean place from the Apogee.
In the modern Aflronomy, it is the Time wherein the Pla.
net moves frown its Aphelion A, to the mean Place or Point of
its Orbit I. C'. ab. ASTRCNOMY, fig. J.)
Hence, as the Arch, or the Angle, or the Elliptic Area
A S I, . is proportional to the Time wherein the Planet de-
fcribes the Arch A l; that Area may represent the mean
Anomaly.-Or thus: The Area S K A found by drawing
a Line L K, thro' the Planet's place, perpendicular to the
Line of the Apfides P A, till it cuts the Circle D A, and,
drawing the Line S K; may represent the mean zSnomalvy; for
this Area is every where proportional to the former Area
SI A, as is demonfirated by Dr. Gregory lJib. ,. Elem.
-4jromn. Th~yird. Math.
ANOMALY of the Eccentric, or of the Ccntre, in the new
Afironomy, is an Arch of the Eccentric Circle A K, fi . r
included between the Aphelium A, and a right Line ZL;
drawn thro' the Centre of the Planet K, per;pendicularly
to the Line oftheApfidesA P. See ECCENTRIC.
In the antient Afironomy, it is an Arch of the Zodiac,
terminated by the Line of the Apfides, and the Line of'
the mean Motion of the Centre.
Tlrue or Eqated ANOMALY, is the Angle at the Sun,
A S I, which a Planet's difiance from the Aphelium, A I,
appears under; or it is the Angle or Area, taken proportio-
na to the time in which the Planet moves from the mean
Place I, to its Aphelion A.
Andhence, in the Sun's Motion, it will be the difiance
of his true place, from the Apogee-
The true Anomaly being given, the mean one is eafily
found: but it is difficult to find the true Anomaly from the
mean one given
The Geometrical Method of ITallis and Newtton, by the
protracled Cycloid, are not fit for Calculation; nor yet the
Methqds of Series, as being too laborious. Hence Afirono-
mers are forced to have recourfe to Approximation. Ward,
in his 4dronomia Geometrica takes the Angle A S I, at the
Focus where the Sun is not, for the mean Anomaly; which'
will nearly reprefent it, if the Orbit of the Planet be not
very Eccentric; and thus eafily folves the Problem. But
this Method does not hold of the Orbit of AMars, as being
more Eccentric than thofe of the other Planets.
Sir Ifaac Newton fhews how to effe& even this; and
when his Correclion is made, and the Problem folved, ac-
cording to WPard's Hypothefis, Sir Ifaac affirms, that even
in the Orbit of Mars, there will fcarce ever -be an Error of
above a Second.
MOEI, or ANOMtANW, a Greek Word, compofed of the
ativez dand egoi, fmiilar, refemblingi q. d. different,
In the'fourth Century, this was the Name by which the
pure Arians were diffinguifli'd; in regard they not only de-
nied the Confublflantiality of the Word, but even afferted,
that he was of a Nature different from that of the Father:
In Contradiffintion. to the Semi-Arians, who indeed 'de-
niedtheConfubftantialityof the Word, but owned at the
fame time, that he was like the Father. Se ARIAN, and
. The Semi-Arians condemned the A4nomeans in the
Council of Seleucia, and the Anodmeans condemned the Semi-
-Arians in their Turn, in the Councils of Conftantinople
and Antioch  erafing the Word o-j out of the Formula
of Jrimini, and that of Confantinp le, and. prorefting that
the4o'r4 had not only a diftcrent Subflance, but alfo a Will
different from that of the Father. Whence the~y were to to
call'd 'Avoflolto. See HomoousIA, &C.
ANONYMOUS, Something that is narmelssi cr to
which no Name is affixed. See NAME.rt
TheTerm is chiefly applied to Books which d't not rx_
prefs their Author's Name. It is derived from  thie (Grt ek
iP0VuAiof, without Name, of the privative a andge
mcmen, Name.
I1ecker, Advocate of the Imperial Chamber of Spires i
and Placcius of Hambourg, have given a Treatife of Ancoiy-
mous Books--Burcard Gottheous Struvius, treats 't
learned Men who have endeavoured to divine the Authors.
ofAnonymous Books.
ANOREXY, ANOREXI A, in Medicine, an Inappeten-
cy, or Lofs of Appetite. See APPETITE.
Anorexia is properly a longer continuance than is na-
tural, without a defire to eat.  See FOOD, FASTAING,
if the Thought, or the Sight of proper Food, create a
Sicknefs in the Stomach, or a Tendency to vomit; it is
called a Na -tya. See NAUSEA.
Anorexia, is chiefly confidered as a Symptom of fome
other Diforder, from which the curative Indications are to
be taken, and afterwards Stomachics 4ufed. See STO MA-
The Word is compounded of the privative Participlece
and psyCu, UPbio, I defire-
ANSES, or AN SI, in Afironomy, thofe apparently pro-
minent Parts of the Planet Saturn's Ring, difcoverad in
its opening, and appearing like Handles to the Body of that
Plant. See SATUEN and RING.
The Word isLatin; and literally fignifies Handles or
Arms of divers Utenfils.-
ANSCOTE, in our antient Law Books, the fame with
Angild. See ScoT-and LOT.
A NSEL Weight. See AuNSEL TWeight.
ANSPESSADES, a kind of Inferior Officers in the
French Foot, below the Corporals, iand yet above the corm-
monCentinels. See CORPORAL, C$C.
There are ufiually four or five in each Company-The
Word is formed of the Italian lanfa ft ezzada, q. d. broken
Lance; which was occafioned hence, that they were origi-
nally disbanded Gendarmes, who for want of other Subf-
flence fued for a Place offome diflinffion in the Infantry.
ANTA, or ANTE, in the ancient Architecure, a fquaro
Column, or Pilafler, placed at the Corners of the Walls of
their Temples and other Edifices. See PILASTER, TEM-;
PLE, eC.
The Ante flood out of the Wall, with a Projelure equal
to one eighth of their Face, provided there were no Orna-
ment that had a greater Projeaurei; but it was a Rule that
the Projeaure of the Ante Ihould always equal that of the
They took their Name, according to Mr. Perraitt, from
the Prepofition Ante before; becaufe placed before the
Walls and Coins of Buildings to fecure 'em.
ANTAGONIST, an Adverfary; or a Party oppofite
toanotherin any Combator Dfpute. See ADvERsARY, E.
The Word is formed     from  the Greek j,77, contra,
againfi, and efiV', opPono, I oppofe.
ANTAGONIST Mufcles, in Anatomy, are thofe which
have oppofite Funaions. See MuscLE.
Such are the Flexor and Exenibr of any Limb, the one
whereof contrafts it, and the other Wretches it out. See
We have fome folitary Mufcles, without any Antagonijs;
as the Heart, Fec. See HEART, SC..
ANTAN ACLASIS, a Figure inRhetorick; being a repeti-
tion of the fame Word, but in a different Significaion, 'See
The Word comes from the Greek awon, and deaxA, re-
percutio, I firike again.
ANTANAGOGE, eV7aesj?, a Figure in Rhetoric,
when not being able to anfwer the Accufiation ofthe Adver-
fary, we return the Charge, by loading hia with the fame
ANTARES, in Akronomy, the Scorpion's Heart; a fix'd
Star of the firfi Magnitude, in the Contfellation Scorpio-
Its Longitude, Latitude, Z!c. fee'among therefi of the
Conflellation Scorpio.
ANTARCTIC, or ANT4RTrIC, Pole, the Southern
Pole, or End of the Earth's Axis ; fo called becaufe it isOp-
pofite to the Arctic or North Pole. See POLE, SOUTH,
ARcTic, &c.
The Stars near the Antartic Pole never appear above
our Horizon. SeeSTAR, HoIzo SON,  C-
The Word is compofed of  On,7 contra, and o! pa7-s, Urfa,
ANTARCTIC, or ANTARTIC Circle, is one of the
lefler Circles of the Sphere, parallel to the Equator, at
F   e                    the

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