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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

A - accumulation,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.6 MB)


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the Monks; and were particularly oaended, that in Synods
and Councils there was no Diffincfion between 'em. On this
Occafion, Pope Clement IV. order'd, that the Abbots fhould
only wear their Mitres embroider'd with Gold, and leave
Jewels to the Bilhops. See MITRE.
Crozier'd ABBOTS, are thofe who bear the Crozier, or
Pafloral Staff. See CROzIER.
There are fome Crozier'd and not Mitred; as the Abbot
of the Benediztine Abbey at Bourges: and others, both the
one and the other.
Among the Greeks, fome even took the Quality of Oecu-
menical Abbots, or Univeryal Abbots, in Imitation of the
Patriarch of Conflantinople. See OECUMENICAL.
Nor have the Latins been much behind 'em in that re-
fpeda: The Abbot of Cluny, in a Council held at Rome,
affum'd the Title of Abbas Abbatum, Abbot of Abbots; and
Pope Calixtus, gave the fame Abbot the Title of Cardinal
Abbot. See CLUNY.
To fay nothing of other Cardinal Abbots, thus denomi-
nated from their being the principal Abbots of Monafteries,
which came to be Separated.
Abbots, again, are now chiefly diflinguifh'd into Regular,
and Commendatory.
ABBOTS Regular, are real Monks, or Religious, who
have taken the Vows, and wear the Habit of the Order.
See REGULAR, RELIGIOUS, VOW, SC.
Such are all Abbots prefum'd to be; it being exprefly pro-
vided by the Canons, that none but a Monk have the Com-
mand over Monks.
ABBOTS in Commendam, are Seculars; tho they have un-
dergone the Tonfure, and are oblig'd by their Bulls to take
Orders when they come of Age. See SECULAR, TON-
SURE, gC.
Tho the Term Commendam infinuates, that they have
only the Adminiflration of their Abbies for a Time; yet do
they hold, and reap the Fruits of 'em for ever; as well as
the Regular Abbots.
Their Bulls give 'em a full Power tam in Spiritualibus,
quam in 7remporalibus. And yet, 'tis true, that the Commen-
datory Abbots do not perform any Spiritual Offices; snor
have they any Spiritual Jurifdidiion over their Monks. So
that the Phrafe in Spiritualibus, is rather Something of the
Roman Stile, than a Reality.
Some of their befd Canonifls rank the Commendam in the
Number of Benefices, inter titulos B6eneliciorum. 'Tis no
more than a Canonical Title, or Provifion to enjoy the Fruits
of a Benefice: But as fuch Provifions are contrary to the an-
tient Canons, none but the Pope, by difpenfing with the old
Law, can grant 'em. See COMMENDAM, BENEFICE, &C.
Our own Hiflory fpeaks very little of thefe Commendatory
Abbots; and 'tis probable the Praaice never prevail'd much
among us. Hence, many of our Writers have been led into
the Mlifake, of fuppofing that all Abbots are Monks. Of
this we have a remarkable Inflance, at which many of our
Countrymen have flumbled, in that Difpute about the Inventor
of the Lines for transforming of Geometrical Figures, call'd
by the French the Robervallian Lines. Dr. Gregory, in the
Philofophical rranfadions, Anno i694. rallies the Abbot
Galloys, who held the Abbey of S. Martin de Cores, in
Commendam, with being a Monk: ' The good Father, fays
" he, imagines we are return'd into that fabulous Age where-
' in a Monk might be allow'd to fay what he pleas'd.'
Which PafTage the Abbot takes hold of, and returns the
Raillery, with Intereff, on the Doaor, in the Memoirs de
I'Academ. Anno 1 703.
The Ceremony whereby Abbots are created, is properly
call'd Benedilion; or Sometimes, tho abufively, Confiecra-
tion. See BENEDICTION, and CONSECRATION.
It antiently confiffed in cloathing him with the Habit call'd
Cuculla, Cowl; putting the Pafforal Staff in his Hand, and
the Shoes call'd Pedales, or Pedules, on his Feet. Thefe
Particularities we learn from the Ordo Romanus of Theodore
Archbifhop of Canterbury.
The Title Abbot has alfo been given to certain Bifhops,
by reafon their Sees had originally been Abbeys; and that
they were even eleded by the Monks: Such are thofe of
Catanea and Montreal, in Sicily. See BIsHoP.
The fame Appellation is extended to the Superiors or Ge-
nerals of fome Congregations of Regular Canons; as that of
S. Genevieve at Paris. See CANON, GENEVIEVE, SC.
. ABBOT is alfo a Title bore by feveral Magifirates, and
other Lay-Perfons. Among the Genoefe, one of their princi-
pal Magifirates was call'd the Abbot of the People.
In Franice, particularly about the Time of Charlemaign,
there were feveral Lords and Courtiers, who having the In-
fpea1ion of certain Abbeys committed to them, were flyl'd
Abba-Comites, or Abbey-Counts. See ABBEY, COUNT, SC.
ABBREVIATURE, or ABBREVIATION, a Contrac-
tion of a Word, or Paffage; made by dropping fome of the
Letters, and fubflituting certain Marks, or Charaters in their
Place. See SYMBOL.
Lawyers, Phyficions, Xc. ufe abundance of Abbreviatures,
3
4 )
A B D
partly for the fake of Expedition,and partly for that of Ayflery.
A Lift of the principal Abbreviatures in the feveral Arrts
and Faculties, fee under the Article CLi AR ACT ER .
Of all People, the Rabbins are the greatefit Dealers in
this way; theirjWritings are unintelligible, without an Expli-
cation of the Hebrew Abbreviatures. !The 7ewdlh Authors
and Copifts don't content themfelves to abbreviate Words,
like the Greeks and Latins, by retrenching fome of the
Letters, or Syllables thereof; but they frequently take away
all but the initial Letter. Thus, ' hands for Rabbi, and
X flands for  X, :'t-  or n1X  according to the Place
it is found in.
But what is more, they frequently take the initial Letters
of feveral Succeeding Words, join 'em together, and adding
Vowels to 'em, make a barbarous fort of Word, reprefenra-
tive of all the Words thus abridg'd. Thus, Ratbi Sche-
lemob 7arrhi, in the Jargon of the Hebrew Abbreviature,
is call'd Rafe; and Rabbi Mofes ben Maiemon, Rambam.
And thus again, Nt2:: is put for Ad n1' -1-1. fzn-Z
Donum in abdito cvertit Iram.
Mercerus, David de Pomis, Schindler, Bi~tr.torf, &c. have
given Explications of this fort of Ciphers. The mofb copi-
ous Colle&ion of Roman Abbreviations, is that of Sertorius
Urfatus, at the End of the Marmora Arundclia; Sertorii
Urfati Equitis de Notis Romanorum Commentaritts.
The Word is deriv'd from the Latin brevis, of the Greek
FC?4X, Short.
ABBRE UVOIR, orfABREVOIR, in Mafonry, the Joint,
or Jonclure of two Stones; or the Interflice, or Space left
between 'em to be fill'd up with Mortar. See STONE, MOR-
TAR, MASONRY, SC.
The Word is French, and literally denotes a Watering-place.
ABBROACHMENT, an obfolete Term in fome of our
antient Law-Books, for the Aa of ingrofling, or buying up
a Commodity by Wholefale, in order to fell it off by Retail.
See FORESTALLING.
ABBUTALS, among Law-Writers, denote the Buttings
or Boundings of a piece of Land; exprefling on what other
Lands, Highways, or the like, the feveral Extremes thereof
do abut, or terminate. Thus, in Croke, the Plaintiff is faid
to fail in his Abbutals, i. e. in fetting forth how the Land
is bounded.
In firiclnefs, 'tis only the extreme Corners are faid to
abut; the Sides are faid to be adjacent.  Latera autem
nunquam aiunt Abuttare; fed terram proximam adjacere.
Camden.
The Word is apparently form'd of the French abouter, to
terminate upon. Tho Camden advances another Etymology.
-' They who have wrote of Limits, fay, that certain
' Hillocks of Earth, term'd IBotentines, were placed there-
'in, by way of Marks: whence, perhaps, our Buttings, and
Boun ings.
ABDICATION, the Aa whereby a Magiflrate, or Per-
fon in Office renounces and gives up the fame, for himfnelf.
and his Heirs. See RENUNCIATION.
Abdication is frequently confounded with Rey/gnation;
but, firidly fpeaking, there is a difference: Abdication
being done purely and fimply; whereas Refignation is done
in favour of fome third Perfon. See RESIGNATION.
In this Senfe, Diocletian, and Charles V. are faid to have
abdicated the Crown; Philip IV. of Spain reflgn'd it. The
Parliament voted King oames's Violation of the Laws, and
his quitting the Kingdom, without providing for the due
Adminiilration of Affairs in his abfence, to import an Abdi-
cation of the Crown.
Among the Romans, Abdication was alfo us'd in oppofi-
tion to Adoption: Thus, a Father was faid to abdicate his
disobedient Son. See ADOPTION.
It differ'd from .Exheredation, Difinheriting, in this Cir-
cumilance, that the abdicated Son was banifh'd his Father's
Family, and cut off from the Succeflion by a folemn Aa,
during the Father's Life: whereas Exheredation only took
place in virtue of his Teffament. See ExHEREDATION.
ABDOMEN, in Anatomy, the lower !Belly; or that Part
of the Body between the Hips and the Diaphragm. See
BODY.
Anatomifis divide the Body into three Regions, or Ven-
ters; the Head; the Thorax, or Breafk; and the Abdomen,
or Belly, absolutely fo call'd; being the lowefi Part of the
Trunk. 'Tis Separated from the Thorax by the Diaphragm,
and reaches to the Offa pubis. See VENTER.
It is called Abdomen, from the Latin abdo, I hide; by
reafon that in its Cavity are wrapp'd up and conceal'd many
of the principal Vifcera, viz. the Stomach, Omentum, In-
teftines, Liver, Spleen, JBladder, &c. See STOMACH, OMEN-
TUM, INTESTINES, Sc.
The Abdomen is lined internally with a thin, foft Mem-
brane; which invefting all the Vifcera abovemention'd, con-
tains and keeps 'em in their Place, call'd the Peritoneum:
upon a Rupture or Dilatation whereof, they are apt to fall,.
and form thofe Tumors call'd Hernias. See PERITONJEUM,
and HERNIA.
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