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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

A - Accumulation,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.6 MB)


Page 3


AB~ATEMENT, in Heraldry, fomnething added! to a Coat- Odalityl w;ithout any~
Concern in' te Monfli Life, took the
Armotr to diminifh its proper Value and Dignity", and note fame Quality
5 even foeoftirKnsae     etondi
fomne diffhonourable Aafion, or Stain in the Charaater of the  Hiflory under
the Title of Abbots. Philip 1. Louis V~,I and
Perfon who bears it. See Al~ms.                       afterwards the Dukes
of Orleans, are call'd .Abbots 'of the
'Tis a little controverted among Authors, whether Heral- Monatltery of S.
Agnan.  The Dukes of Aquitain wer
dry allw of any fuch thing as regular Abatements. Leigli call'd Abbots of
the Monaflery o 6F S. Hilary, at Poiffiers;
and Gui/tm, without any Scruple as to their Reality, give  and the Earls
of Anjou of S. Aubin,&.
usfeeral Kinds.                                        One third of the befi
Benefices in England were antiently,
Abatements, according to the lafi of thofe Writers, are by the Pope's Grant,
appropriated to Abbies, and other Re-
either made by Reverfion or Diminution,                ligious Houfes ; which,
upon their Difilolution under King
Rever~fzon is either turning the whole Efcutche'on upfide- Henry VIII. became
Lay-Fees  190g fuch were dillrolv'd o'f
down;5 or the adding another Efcutcheon, inverted, in the  between zoo I.
and 3 5000 1. yearly JRevenue, which at a
fo~rmer.                                               Medium amounted to
2853000 1. per Annum._
fDiminlition, is the blemnifhing any patt by adding a Stain,  ABBOT, or ABBAT,
the Chief, or Superior of an Ab,-
or Mark of Diminution: Such are a Delf, a 'Point DJexter, bey, of the Male
Kind. See Asnxy, and ABBIESS.
a Poit Chapaign, a Plain Point, a Goar Sinifter, and a  The Name Abbot is
originally Hebre-w, where it fignifies
Guff't. See each under its p roper Article, DEE.F, Point Father.  The 7ewxs
call Father in their Language Ab,
DEXTER, GOAR, GUSSvr, Oek.                             whence the Cbaldoes
and Syrians form'd Abba ; and thence
it may be added, that thefe Marks muff always be either the Grccks d'~c which
the Latins retain'd, Abbas ; and
.Tawny, or Murrey; otherwife, inflead of Diminutions,, hence our Abbot, the
French -Abbe,' &c.
they become Additions of Honour. See TAWNY, MU131-       St. Mark and St.
Paul ufe the Syriac Abba in their Greek;5
RE~  c.                                             by reafon it 'was then
~comnmonly known in the Synagogues,
The lafi Editor of Gui/tim difcards the whole Notion of and the primitive
Aflamblies of the Chriflians ; adding t4
/Jbatemenzts, as a Chimera.  He alledges, that no one In- It, by way of Interpretation,
the Word Father, 'Ag/3z 6'
fiance is to be met withal of fuchl Bearing;5 and that it im- Abba, Father,
q. d. Abba, that is tofay, Father.
plies a Contradiftion to fuppofe it. Arms, being infZ nia  The Name Ab and
Ab ba, which at firft wasa Term o
Nobilitatis Ue Ionoris, cannot admit of any Mark ot In- Tenderrrefs and Affedtion,
in the lHebre-w and Clhaldee, be-
famy, without ceafing to be Arms, and becoming Badges of came at length aTitle
of Dignity and Honour. The 7e'wijj
Difgrace ; which all would covet- to lay afide. Add, that as Dodtors aff~~eded
it;i and one of their mofi: antient Books,,
no hereditary Honour can be adlually dimninifli'd; foP neither containing
the Sayings, or Apothegms of divers of 'em  iS
can the Marks thereof. Both, indeed, may be forfeited;5 as e'ntitled,' Pirke
AI',bot, or Avoth, i. e. 'Chapter of the
in the Cafe of Treafon, where the Efcutcheon is totally re- Fathers.
'vers'd, to intimate a total Suppreflion of the Honour.  'Twas in allufion
to this Ai-ecdation, that Jefus Chrifl for-
Some Inflances, however, aretproduc'd to the contrary by  b~ad his Difcipies
to call any M11an their Father on Earth:-
colomnbiere, and others. But tefe, the they may ffiew  which Words S. *7erom
turns againift the Superiors of the
fomne extraordinary Refentments of Princes for Offences Monafleries of' his
Time, for anuhming the Title of Abbots,
committed in their iPrefence, do not amiount to a Proof of or Fathers.
fuch Cuflom or Pradice ; much lefs authorize the Being of  The Name Abbot,
then, appears as old as" the Inflitution~
particular Badges in the Hands of inferior Officers, as Kings of Monks it
felf. See MoNIC.
at Arms.                                                 The Governors of
the primitive Monafleries affurn'd in-
AIIATrEMENT, in Law, is us'd for the defeating or over- diffierently the
Names Abbots and Archlimandrites. See A&-
throwing of a thing, as a Writ, Appeal, or the like.   CHIMANDRITES.
Thus-, the Abatement of a Mrit, is the frufirating, or fet-  They were really
diflingihdfrmteCrgtof-
ting it afide, by forne Exception alledg'd and. made good (quently confounded,
with 'crn, becauife a Degree above Lay-
agairnff it. Such Exception may be taken either to the men. S. _7crom, writing
to H1e/zodorus, fays exprefly,, A/ia
Matter, as infuflicient ; or to the Allegations, as uncertain, Monacborum
 e~ft Cauvfa, a/ia Clericorum. See' CLERGY,
e, g. where one of the Parties or a Place are mifnam'd 5 or PeRIEST, E5èC.
to forne Variation between the Writ and  eod  rt h       In thofe early Days,
the Abbots were fubjeC ote  3i
Uncertainty of the Writ, Count, or Declaration;- or to divers fhops, and
the ordinary Paflors.  Their Monafferies being
other Particulars. Upon any of which, the Defendant may  remote from Cities,
built in the fartheft Solitudes, they had
ray that the Writ, or Plaint, may abate 5 i. e. that the  no Ihare in Eccieflaflical.
Affairs. They went on Sundays to,
PlaintifF's Suit may ceafe for that time. See WH IT.   the Parifh-Church
with the tell of the People : or, if they
So we read in Staundford, I The Appeal abates by Covin : were too remote,
a Priefi was Ilent 'em to adminifler the Sa-.
thtis, the Accufation is defeated bv Deceit.-In the old craments;5 till at
length they were allow'd to have Priefls of
Nat. B8rev. To abate a Caftle, or Fortlet, is interpreted, to their own Body.
beat it down.                             ~~~~~~~~The Abbot, or Archimandrite
himnfelf was ufually the
ABSATEMENT is alfo an irregular Entry upon Lands, or Prieft : but his Funffion
extended no farther than to the Spi-
Tenements, left vacant by their former Poffeffor, and not ritual Afliflances
of his Monaflery ; and he remain 'd fill in'
yet laid hold of by the next Heir.                     obedience to the Bifhop.
As he that puts out the Poffeffor is faid to diffeize ; fo he  There being
amnong the Abbots feveral Perfons of Leairning,
that interpofes, or Rleps in between the former Pofreffor and  they made
a vigorous O ppofiti on to the riling Herefies of thoe
his Heir, is faid to abate. See DissEisliN.            Times; which firfl
occafion'd the Bifhops to call 'em out of
ICoke on Littleton diflinguiffies between Abatement Aad  their Defarts, and
fix 'em about the Suburbs of Cities;5 and
11ntrilion ; but the new Book of Entries renders -Abatement at length in
the Cities themfelves : from which E.&a their
by Intrufie. See INTRUSION.                            Degeneracy is to be
dated.
.ABBESS, the Superior of an Abbey, or Convent of Nuns.  The -Abbots, now,
foon wore off their former Plainnefs
See ABBEY, and CONvENT.                                and Simplicity, and
began to be lod onY as a 'fort of little
The Abbefs has the fame Rights, and Authority over her Prelates. In time
they would belindlependent of the Bifhop;
Nuns, that the Abbots regular have over their Monks. See and became fo infupportable,
that forne fevere Laws wera
ADDBOT.                                                made againil'ern at
the Council of Cbalcedon: This notwith-
The Sex indeed does not allow her to perform the Spiri- flanding, in time,
many of 'em carry'd th-ePoint of Inde-
tual Funaiens annex'd to the Priefthood, wherewith the Ab- pendency;5 and
got the Appellation of Lord, with other
bot is ufually invefted; but there are Inflances of fomne Ab- Badges of the
Epifcopate, particularly the Mitre.
beifffes, who have a Right, or rather a Privilege, to commif  Hence arofe
new Species and Diflinaions of Abbots, Mi-
flion a Priefi to ad for 'em. They have even a kind of Epif- tredi4 and not
Mitred, ; Crozier'd, and not Crozier'd, Oecu-
copal Jurifdiidion, as well as forne Abbots, who are exempt- menical, C'ardinal,
&c.
ed! from the Vifitation of their Diocefans. See ExitmrTioN.  Afli~e4ABBOTS,
were thofe privileg'd to wear the viltre;
F. Martene, in his Treatife of the Rites of the Church, and,)having, withal,
a full Epifcopal Authority within their
obfetivts, that fomne Abbeffies have formerly confefs'd their flevtral Precinas.
Among us, thefe were alfo: call'd Abbots
Nuns. He adds, that their exceffilve Curiofity carry'd 'em  fov reign, and
Abbots general ; and were Lords of Parlia-
fuch lengths, that there arofe a neceflity of checking it.  ment. ~'Of thefe
Sir Edwxard Coke, de jYur. Ecclef. reckons
S. B'Aafil, in his Rule, allows the -Abbef to be prefent with  zy7 in, England,
befide two Mitred Priors. See PR IOR.
the Prieff at the Confeffions of her Nuns. See CoN;Ess ioN.  Tlte tell, who
were not mitred, were fubjea to the Dio-
ABBEY, or ABBY, a Monaftery, or Religious Houfe, cefaAi.
govern'd by an Abbot, or Abbefs, See ABBIOT, F-c   ~     Pere' Hay, a BZenediffine
Monk, in his book entitled.Af-
Abediffer from Priories, in that the one are under the tru-  Inextinflum,
maintains, that the Abbots of his Order
Direaion of an Abbo't, and the other of a Prior:- but Abbot have not only
an Epifcopa'l, but even a Papal Jurifdiffion;
and Prior (we mean a Prior Conventual) are the fame thing;5 Poteftatem qua/?
.Epifco~palem, imo qua!?t Papa/em; and as
and only differ in Namne. See PRIOR.                  fuch can confer the
lower Orders of Deacon and Subdeacon.
Fauchet obfervcs, that in the early Days of the French  See O~flErt.    
          teMr)thBihp
Monarch, Dukes and Counts were call'd Abbots, and Du-    When the Abbots
firfl afrum' th  Mtet     ed by~~
chis ad  ounties Aibbies.  Many Perfonis of the prime  made heavy Complaints
of their Privileges being invade b
I                                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~the


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