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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

The preface,   pp. I [i]-xxx PDF (27.2 MB)


Page iii


The P R E F A C
iA
gin; but this in a loofer manner, to prevent the Embarrafs of an Analyfis
fo complex and diffuive as this muft
prove. Some of the principal Heads of each Kind will here come in fight,
and fuch as will naturally fuggeft,
and lead to the reft; fo that this will afford the Reader a fort of Summary
of the Whole: And at the fame
time will difpenfe a kind of auxiliary or fuccedaneous Order thro'out the
Whole ; the numerous Articles
omitted, all naturally enough ranging themselves to their proper Places among
thefe. A Detail of this Kind
is of the more Confequence, as it may not only fupply the Office of a Table
of Contents, by prefenting the difpyrfed
Materials of the Book in one View; but alfo that of a Direcory, by indicating
the Order they are moft advanta-
geoufly read in.-----Note, then, That the initial Articles here, tally to
the final ones of the Analyfis  and that
the feveral Members hereof, are fo many Heads in the Book.
I METEOROLOGY, or the Hiftory of AIR and ATMO-
SP H ER E: including, O, that of its Contents, AEther, Fire, Vapour, Ex-
halation, &c.   0, Meteors form'd therein, as Cloud, Rain, Shower,
Drop, Snow, Hail, Dew, Damp, &c. Rainbow, Parhelion, Halo,
Thunder, Water-fposut, &c. Winds, Mon-foon Hurricane, and the like.
2 H Y DR O L O G Y, or the Hiftory of W A T E R ; including
that of springs, Rivers, Acidula, &c. of Lake, Sea, Ocean, &c. of
Tides, Deluge, and the like.
3 MINEROLOGY, or theHiftory Of EARTH; f1, ItsParts,
as Mountain, Mine, Mofs, Bog, Grotto e and their Phxnomena, as Earth,
quake, Volcano, Confiagration,, &c.  Its Strata, as Clay, Bole, sand-
&c.   Z., Fofflis or Minerals, as Metals, Gold, Silver, Mercury, &c.
with
Operations relating to 'em, as Fufion, Refining, Purifying, Parting,
Ejfaying, &c. Litharge, Lavatory, Pinea, &c. Salts, as Nitre, Na-
tron, Gemma, Allum, Armoniac, Borax, &c.       Sulphurs, as Arfenic,
AMember, Ambergreafe, Coal, Bitumen, Naphtha, Petrol, &c.     Semi-
metals, as Antimony, Cinnabar, Marcafjte, Magnet, Bi/muth, Calamine,
Cobalt, &cc    Stones, as Marble, Porphyry, Slate, AsbeJios, &c.
Gems, as Diamond, Ruby, Emerald, Opal, Turcoifre, &c. Emery, Lapis,
&c. whence Ultramarine, Azure, &c. Petrifaltions, as Cryflal, Spar,
Stalaclites, Trochites, Cornu Ammonis, and the like.
4 PHYTOLOGY, or theHiftory of PLANTS; their Origin,
in the Seed, Fruit, &c. Their Kinds, as Tree, Herb, 8cc. extraordinary
Species, as Tea, Cofee, Paraguay, VineGinfengcottonTobacco, &c. Coral,
MutJhroom, Truffle, Parafite, MiflIelto, Mofs, &c. Parts, as Root,
Stone, Flower;   Wood, as Guaiacum, Saffafras, Ebeny, Aloes, &c.
Leaf, as Foliation, Roll, &c. Bark, ßuinquina, &c. Piflil,
Farina,
Stamina, &c. Operations thereof, as Vegetation, Germination, Cir-
culation, &c.   Circumftances, as Perpendicularity, Parallelifm, Fer-
sility, &c.  Produfions, as Honey, Wax, Balm, Sugar, Manna, &c.
Gum, Reirsx, Camphor, &c. Indigo, Opium, Galls, and the like.
S Z O O L O G Y, or the Hiftory of A'N I M A L S: Their Origin in
Egg, Embryo, Fxtus, Generation, Conception, Geflation, Hatching, Migra-
ton, &c.   Their Kinds, as Quadruped, Bird, Fijh, Infecl, Reptile, Rumi-
nant, Carnivorous, &c. Extraordinary Species, as Unicorn, Torpedo,
Tarantula, Tortoife, Cameleon, Salamander, &c. Barnacle, Anchovy,
Death-Watch, 8cc.     Monfters, as Double Animals, Hermaphrodite,
Mule, Pigmy, Giant, &c. Metamorphofes, as Aurelia, Metempfychofis,
&c. Parts, as Read, Hand, Foot, Finger, Tail, Fin, Wing, Gills, &c.
Covering, as Hair, Wool, silk, Feathers, &c.    Armature, as Nail,
Sting, Horn, Tooth, Shell, Probofrcis, Web, 8cc. Produ&ions, as Pearl,
Bezoard, Cafloremm, Civet, Meconium, Mummy, Ufnea, &c. Kermes,
Cochineal, 8c. Motion, as Flying, Swimming, and the like.
6 PHYSICS, orthe Dofrineof CAUSES; as Nature, Law,
&c. Occafions or Means, as Principle, Matter, Form, &c. Their
Compofition or Conflitution, in Element, Atom, Particle, Body.
Chaos, World, Univerfe, Space, Vacuum, &c. Properties of Body, as
Extenjion, solidity, Figure, Divifjbility, &c. Powers thereof, as At-
tratlion, Cohejion, Gravitation, Repulfion. Elaflicity, Elellricity, Magne-
tifm, &c. Qualities, as Fluidity, Firmnefs, Dutlility, Hardnefs, Volatility,
Denfity, Polarity, &c. Light, Heat, Cold, &c. Operations or Effeffs
thereof, as Motion, Rarefatiion, Dilatation, Condenfation. Di#folution,
Ebullition, Freezing, Evaporation, Fermentation, Digeftion, Effervefcence,
&c. Vifion, Seeing, Hearing, Feeling, Smelling, &c. Modifications
or
Changes, as Alteration, Corruption, Putrefattion, Generation, Degene-
ration, Tran/mutation, &c. Syftems or Hypothefes hereof, Corpsecu
lar, Epicurean, Ariftotelian, Peripatetic, cartefian, Ne'wtonian, &c.-
Occult and Fifitious Qualities, Powers, and Operations, Antipe.
riflajis, Sympathy, Antipathy. Archams, &c. Magic, Witchcraft, Vir-
gula Divina, Ligature, Taifman, Cabbala, &c. Druid, Bard, Brach-
man, Gymnofophifl, Magi, Roficrucian, and the like.
' M E T A P H Y S I C S, or the Dofrine of E N s, FfJence, Exif-
tence, Power, .lc, Underfianding, 8c.-The M I N D, Its Facul-
ties, Apprehesfion, Yudgment, Imagination, Reafon, Wit, &c.      Its
Operations, Retention, Refletlion, Affociation, Abftralion, &c.  Its
Perceptions, as Subfiance, Accident, Mode, &c. Relations, as Unity,
Multitude, Infinity, Univerfal, &c.  buantity, !Rality, whole, Part,
&c. Genus, Species, Diference,   &c. Proper, Oppofie, Circumifance,
External, &c.    Ef~eks hereof, Knowledge, Science, Art, Experience,
&c. Conditions, Probability, Certaint y,  al      c.   Syems here-
of, Nominal:, Scotijis, &c.
S ARITHMETIC, includVjgtheDo&rineof DISCRETE or
Difcontinuous QU A N T I T Y, ViZ. Number, RatioProportion,&c. Kinds,
as Integer, Fraclion, Decimal, Surd, &c.  Relations, as Root, Power,
Square, cube,   Jcc.  Rules or Operations     thereof, as Notation,
Numeration, Addition, Smbtraaeion, 8cc. Redmaion, PratHie, Pofition,
ecC. Extraflion, Approximation, &c. Inftruments fubfervient theretoj
as Logarithmns, Nepair's Bones, &c.
9 A N A L Y T I C S, or the Refolution of P RiO B L E M S by
Species or Symbolical Expreffions: Rules or Operations hereof, Ad.
dition, Subtraffion, Multiplication, &c. Application thereof, in Com-
binations, Permutations, Magic Squares, Chances, Gaming, &c. Se-
riess ProgreJfions, &c. Methods de Maximis, Fluxions, Exponentialsi
Tangents, &c.
A L G E B R A, or the Doflrine of E qU A T I O N s;       Simple,
qLuadratic, Cubic, &c.     Operations    thereof, as Red tion,     Cats-
firutaion, &c.
" G E O M E T R Y, or the Do&rine of E x T E N D E D, or Continu-
OuS Qu ANTI T Y ViZ. If, Lines, Right, Perpendicular, Paralleloblique,
&c. Angles, Acute, Scalenous, Vertical, Oppofite, &c.      .0, Figures,
or Surfaces, Triangle, Square, Parallelogram, Trapezium, Polygon, &c.
Circumftances hereof, as Perimeter, Area, &c.      Operations relating
hereto, as Biffeling, Dividing, Multiplying, Meafuring, &c.         In-
firuments ufed therein, as Compalfes, Ruler, Square, Parallelifm, Scale,
&c.    Curves, as Circle, Cycloid, Ciffoid, Catenaria, Cauflic, Evolute,
6Zyadratrix, &c. Circumftances thereof, as Axis, Diameter, Radius,
Centre, Circumference, Ab/cifs, Ordinate, &c. Arch, Chord, Sine:
Tangent, Secant, &c.    Initruments ufed herein, as Artificial Lines,
Canons, &c. Operations arifing herefrom, as Surveying, taking An-
gles or Bearings, &c. with &éuadrant, Plain-Table, Semicircle,
Circam-
ferentor, &cc. taking Di/lances, with Chain, Perambulator, &c. Plot-
ting into Draught, Map, &c. with Protraaior, 8cc.        30, Solids or
Bodies, as Cube, Parallelopiped, Prifm, Pyramid, Cylinder, Polyhedron,
&c. Their Surface, Solidity, &c.     Operations relating hereto,
as Cu-
bature, meafuring of Timber, Gauging, &c.      Inftruments ufed herein,
as Carpenters Rule, Setlor, Sliding Rule, Gauging Rod, &c.--        The
Sphere, its Doftrine, Projeftiion, &c. Application thereof, in Plani-
fiphere, Analemma, &c...     The Cone, its Seaions, Ellipfis, Parabola,
Hyperbola, &c.    Their Afyj'mptotes, Foci,   &c.   Their Confirutlion,
ßLysadrature, Relification, &c.
S T   A T  I C  S, or the Doflrine of M   o T I O N; Its Laws, Veloci-
ty, Momentum, &c. Caufes, as Gravity, Percuflion, Communication, 8cc.
Modifications, as Compofition,   Acceleration, Retardation, Refieefion,
Refraccion,  &c.  Kinds, as Aficnt, Defcent, Central, centripetal, &c.
Ofcillation, Undulation, Projeclion, &c.  Powers or Applications there-
of; in Lever, Screw,     &c. Pendulum, Projeflile, &c.      Operations
dire&ed hereby, as Gunnery, the Mechanical Arts, &c. enumerated
hereafter.
'3 E T H I C S, or the Confideration of Natural Inclinations, Paf
fions,Tafles, &c. Objefts thereof, as Good, Evil, Virtue, Vice, Beauty,
Deformity, &c. Pkafure, Pain, &c. Refitude, Equity, Confcience, &c.
Law, Obligation, &c. Will, Liberty, AFlion, Ajfent, &c. Necejfity,
Pre-
motion, Providence, &c. Syftems hereof, Stoicsfm, Platonifm, Acade-
my, Cynic, and the like.
'4 POLICY, or the Confideration          of SOCIETY and COM-
M 0 N W E A L; Its Origin, in      Contraa, &c.     Conftiutions   and
Forms thereof, as, 10, Monarchy, Defpoti/m, &c. Powers thereof, King,
Rueen, Prince, Duke. Emperor, Sultan, sophy, Caliph, Ca/ar, Czar,
Tnca, Ethnarch, Tetrarch, Defpot, and the like.  Their Ttiles, Majefly,
Highnefs, Grace, Excellence, and the like,    Their Regalia, Crowni
Sceptre, Tiara, Fafces,&c.  af, Ariftocracy; its Powers, asArchon, Dic-
tator, Doge, enate, Council, &c. 30, Democracy; States-General, Stadt
holder, ProtebIor, &cc.  Their Succeflion, Eletlive, Hereditary, by Pri.~
mogeniture, &c. Their Tranfaftions, as Peace, War, Treaty, Union,
League, Croifade, &c. By Armies, Fleets, Embaffies. Secretary, Ple-
nipotentiary, Envoy, Legate, Nuntio, &c. Their Territories, Empire,
Principality, Signory, &c. Their Effates, Nobles, Commons, Cler-
gy. Cen/us,    Enumeration, Tribe,    juarter, &c.    Province, Circle,
County, City, Town, &cc.     Magiftrature, Chancellor, 5fgdge, Sherif,
uflice, Mayor, Alderman, Baili~fh Conflable. Inter-Rex, Con/fl, Pretor,
cenfor, Vizir. Tribune, TriumvirProvofl, Ephori,  Edile, Prefei,  mefl or,
Procon/u. Vicec-Roy, LieutenantSeeward, Warden, Keeper. turifconfultus.
Procurator, Advocate, Barrifter, Protbonotary, Cuflos, Philazer, Chiro-
grapher, UJber, Clerk, &c.   Their Jurifdiifion; Courts, as Areopagus,
Comitia, &c. Parliament, Diet, Divan. Chamber, Affize, Privy Coun-
cil, &cc. Chancery, King's-Bench, Exchequer, Admiralty, Verge, Sef-
fions, Turn, County Court, Leet, Eyre, &cc. Terms, Circuits, Commif
fions, Oyer.   Convocation, Arches, Prerogative, Faculties, Delegates.
Rota, Inquifition, &c.   Their Revenues, Treafury, Fifc, Exchequcr,
Tally, Political Arithmetic. Duties, Cufloms, Gabel, Excife, &c. Coin-
age, Money, Interefl, Ufery, &c. Their Houfhold, Chamber, Green-
Clotb, Ward-robe, &c. Under Steward, Chamberlain, Comptroller, Cof-
ferer, Aga, Oda,   &c.   Guard, Stables, Ordnance,     &c. direfted
by
CAptain,   Mafler,  Eq   terry,  &c.  Militia,  Navy, Pofi, Timarier,
Arriere-ban, &c. Dignities, Dauphin, Eleaor, Palatini, Grave, Pa4f.
grave. Thane, Earl, Count, Knight, Garter, Baronet, Bath, Teato-
nic, Malta, Elephant,   &c. Gentlem   nan, Yeoman,  &c.  Their Names,
Sirnamnes, Titles, Precedence,  &c.  Faftions, Patrician, Guelf, Tory.
Ick.  Corporations, at lefrer Commi-nities,   Univerfity, Academy, Col-
lege,
*i #i4


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