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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

R - rectification,   pp. 951-966 PDF (18.2 MB)

Page 953

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,es or Scantlings of Rafter;, tis provided by AA of
pgrliarnent, that prixeipal Rafter; from  Iz Foot 6 Inches, to 14
Foot 6 Inches long, be 5 Inches broad a-top. and 8 at the bot-
rom, and 6 Inches thick.
Thofe from 14, 6 to I 8, 6 long, to be 9 Inches broad at the
Foot and 7 a-top, and 7 thick.
And thofe from IS, 6, to 2i, 6, to be Io Inches broad at the
Foot, 8 a-top, and 8 Inches broad.
single Rafters, 6 Foot 6 Inches long, to be 4 and 3 Inches in
their Square.  Thofr 8 Foot long mutt be + 4 and 3 I Inches
RAFFLING, a Game with three Dice, wherein he who
throws the greateft Pair, or Pair-Royal, in three Caffs, wins.
The Raffle is properly the double or triplet. A Rafflle of Aces,
or Duces, carries it againif meer Points.
R4ving is alfo ufed when a Company of Perfons club to the
Purchafe of a Commodity; and he that throws the higheft on
the Dice takes it.
The Word probably comes from the bafe Latin, risfiare, to
ripfe, plunder, take all away.
RAG, or RAKE, among Hunters, is a Company, or Herd of
young Colts.
RAGGED Hawk, in Faulconry, is an Hawk that hath its Fea-
thers broken. See HAWK.
raldry, is applied to an Ordinary, Ex. gr. a Crofs,
P whofe Out-Lines are jagged or knotted, as in the Fi-
gure adjoining. He beareth Sable, a Crofs Ragguled,
Or, by the Name of Sloway.
Raggeddiffers from indented, in that the latter is regular, and
this former not.
The Bearing is very Antient: Julius Cafar gave for his Badge,
a Boar's Head, on a ragged Staff.
RAGGULED is fometimes alfo ufed in the Senfe of 7runcated,
or Camped, and applied to a Branch that is faw'd from the Tree;
or a Stock faw'd from its Root.
RAGMAN's-Roll, or rather RAGIMUN D's-Roll, a Roll or Lift
denominated from its Author Ragimnund, a Legat in Scotland, who
calling before him all the beneficed Perfons in that Kingdom,
caufed them, upon Oath, to give in the true Value of their Be-
nefices; according to which they were taxed in the Court of
This Roll, among other Records, being taken from the Scott
by our King Edward I. was re-delivered to them in the Begin-
ningof Edward Ild's time.
.AGOaT, or RAGOO, a Sauce, or Seafoning, to roufe or
recover the Appetite when languifhing or loft.
The Term is French, but naturalized.
The Term is alfo ufed for a high-feafon'd Difli, prepared of
Flefh, Fifh, Greens, or the like, by flewing them with the Ad-
dition of Bacon, Salt, Pepper, Cloves, and the like.
We have Ragoo; of Beef, of Cray-Filh, of Giblets, of Afia-
ragus, of Endive, of Cocks-Combs, of Gammon, of Celery, Xc.
The Ancients had a Ragort call'd  Garmi, made    of the
Putreted Guts of a certain Fifh, which they kept till it
dilfolved by neer Force of Corruption, into a Sanies: This was
held fuch a valuable Dainty among them, that Pliny obierves, its
Price equa!l'd that of the richeft Perfumes.
RAJA, an Indian Term, ufed for a Kind of Idolatrous Princes,
the remains of thofe who ruled there before the Conqueft of
the Moguls.
There are fomc Rajas who ftill retain a Kind of Sovereignty
in the Mountains: The Indians call them Rai; the Perfzans, plu-
rally, Raijan ; our Travellers, Rajas, or Ragias.
The chief Lords of the Moguls, viz. the Vice-Roys, Gover-
nours of Provinces, and Chief Minifters of State, F. Catrom ob-
ferves, are call'd Ombras; and the Idolarrous-Rajas, or Indian
Lords, who governed petty States before the Conqueft of their
Country, hold the fame Rank at Court with the Omhras.
All the difference is, that the Children of the Rajas fucceed
their Fathers in the thew of the Sovereignty left them; whereas
the Children of the Mahometan Lords lofe all in lofing their
The Indians account four Ages from the Beginning of the
World, and in the fecond, which lafted I296000 Years, they
hold the Rajas or Kchatrys had their Rife; chafte, noble, &c.
though inferiour to the Brainans. See BRAMAN.
Vice then began to creep into-the World; Men only lived to
300 Years, and their Stature was reduced, &c.  Lett. Eit. &
RAIL, in Architecfure, is applied varioufly; particularly, to
thofe pieces of Timber, &c. which lie Horizontally between the
Pannels of Wainfcot; to thofe that lie over and under Ballufters
in Balconies, Stair-Cafes, &c. and to the pieces of Timber that
lie horizontally from Poft to Poft, in Fences with Pales or
RAIN, a very frequent and ufeful Meteor; defcending from
4b0ve in form of Drops of Water. See METEOR and DROP.
Ran is, apparently, a precipitated Cloud; as Clouds are no-
thing but Vapours rais'd from Moifture, Waters, &c.   See
And Vapours are demonifratively nothing elfe but little Butb-
bles or Vefit.'e detach'd from the Waters, by the Power of the
folar, or lubterraneous Heat, or both. See VAPOUR.
Thefe Veficule being fpecifically lighter than the Atmofphere,
are buoyed up thereby, till they arrive at a Region where the Air
is ajuft Balance with them; and here they float, till by fome new
Agent they are converted into Clouds, and thence either into
Rain, Snow, Hail, Mift, or the like. See SNow, HAIL, &c.
But the Agent in this Formation of the Clouds into Rain, &c.
is a little controverted; the generality will have it the Cold,
which conftantly occupying the fuperiour Regions of the Air,
chills and condenfes the Veficule, at their Arrival from a warmer
Quarter; congregates them together, and occations feveral of
them to coalefce into little Mafles: By this Means theirQuantity
of Matter increafing in a greater Proportion than their Surface,
they become an overload to the light Air, and accordingly de-
fcend in Rain.
Mr. Derham accounts for the Precipitation, hence; that the
Vejricul being full of Air, when they meet with a colder Air than
that they contain, their Air is contrasted into a lefs Space, and
confequently the watery Shell or Cafe render'd thicker, fo as to
become heavier than the Air, &c. See COLD.
Others only allow the Cold a Part in the Adion, and bring
in the Winds as Sharers with it; indeed 'tis clear, that a Wind
blowing againft a Cloud will drive its Veficule upon one another;
by which means feveral of them coalefcing as before, will be en-
abled to defcend; and the effeit will be fill more confiderable
if two oppofite Winds blow towards the fame Place.  Add to
this, that Clouds already form'd, happening to be aggravated by
frefh Acceffions of Vapour continually ascending, may thence be
enabled to defcend. See WIND.
Yet the grand Caufe, according to Rohault, is ftill behind:
That Author conceives it to be the Heat of the Air, which af-
ter continuing for fome time near the Earth, is at length carried
up on high by a Wind, and there thawing the fnowy Villi, or
Flocks of the half-frozen Vefcule, reduces them into Drops;
which coalefcing, defcend and have their Diffolution perfeled in
their Progrefi through the lower and warmer Stages of the At-
Others, as Dr. Clark, &c. afcribe this Defcent of the Clouds
rather to an Alteration of the Atmofphere, than of the Vejicule;
and fuppofe it to arife from a Diminution of the Spring or elaftic
Force of the Air. See ELASTICITY.
This Elafticity which depends chiefly or wholly on the dry ter-
rene Exhalations, being weaken'd; the Atmofphere finks under its
Burthen; and the Clouds fall, on the common Principle of Pre-
cipitation. See PRECIPITATION.
Now, the little Veficule by any, or all, of thefe Means, being
once upon the Defcent, will perfift therein, notwithftanding the
Increafe of Refiftence they every Moment meet withal in their
Progrefi through ftill denfer and denfer Parts of the Atmof-
For, as they all tend towards the fame Point, fi. the Cen-
tre of the Earth, the further they fall the more Coalitions will
they make ; and the more Colalitions, the more Matter will there
be under the fame Surface, the Surface only increafing as the
Squares, but the Solidity as the Cubes; and the more Matter un-
der the fame Surface, the lets Fri6tion or Refiftence there will
be to the fame Matter. See BAROMETER.
Thus if the Cold, the Wind, &c. happen to adf early enough
to precipitate the Vefjcule, e're they are arrived at any confidera-
ble Height; the Coalitions being few in fo fhort a Defcenr, the
Drops will be proportionably fmall; and thus is form'd what we
call Dew. See DEW.
If the Vapours prove more copious, and rile a little higher,
we have a .Mj? or Fog. See FOG.
A little higher ftill, and they produce afmall Rain, &c.
If they neither meet with C2old nor Wind enough to con-
denfe or diffipate them; they form a heavy, thick, dark Sky;
which laft, fometimes feveral Weeks. See WEATHER.
Hence we may account for many of the Phenomena of the
Weather; e. gr. why a cold, is always a wet Summer; and a
warm a dry one? Becaufe the Principle of Precipitation is had
in the one Cafe, and wanting in the other.
Why we have ordinarily moft Rain about the Equinoxes?
Becaufe the Vapours arife more plentifully than ordinary in the
Spring, as the Earth becomes loofen'd from the brumal Confti-
pations; and becaufe as the Sun recedes from us in Autumn,
the Cold increafing, the Vapours that had linger'd above during
the Summer Heats, are now difparch'd down, &c.
Why a fettled, thick, clofe Sky fcarce ever Rains till it have been
firft clear? Becaufe the equably diffufed Vapours mutt firft be
condens'd, and congregated into feparate Clouds, to lay the
Foundations of Rain; by which means the reft of the Face of
Heaven is left open, and pervious to the Rays of the Sun, &c.
For other Phenomena of Rain, as they relate to the Wea-
ther-Glats, fee BAROMETER.
As to the manwtity of Rain that falls; its Proportion in feve-
ral Places at the fame Time, and in the fame Place at feveral
Times; we have Store of Oblervations, Journals, &c. in the
Memoirs Qf the French Academy. the Phi1o 7ranfaff. &c. an

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